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Mathematics LibreTexts

1.2: Integers

  • Page ID
    5118
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    summary

    By the end of this section, you will be able to:

    • Simplify expressions with absolute value
    • Add and subtract integers
    • Multiply and divide integers
    • Simplify expressions with integers
    • Evaluate variable expressions with integers
    • Translate phrases to expressions with integers
    • Use integers in applications

    A more thorough introduction to the topics covered in this section can be found in the Elementary Algebra chapter, Foundations.

    Simplify Expressions with Absolute Value

    A negative numbers is a number less than 0. The negative numbers are to the left of zero on the number line (Figure \(\PageIndex{1}\)).

    Figure shows a horizontal line marked with numbers at equal distances. At the center of the line is 0. To the right of this, starting from the number closest to 0 are 1, 2, 3 and 4. These are labeled positive numbers. To the left of 0, starting from the number closest to 0 are minus 1, minus 2, minus 3 and minus 4. These are labeled negative numbers.
    Figure \(\PageIndex{1}\). The number line shows the location of positive and negative numbers.

    You may have noticed that, on the number line, the negative numbers are a mirror image of the positive numbers, with zero in the middle. Because the numbers \(2\) and \(−2\) are the same distance from zero, each one is called the opposite of the other. The opposite of \(2\) is \(−2\), and the opposite of \(−2\) is \(2\).

    OPPOSITE

    The opposite of a number is the number that is the same distance from zero on the number line but on the opposite side of zero.

    Figure \(\PageIndex{2}\) illustrates the definition.

    Figure shows a number line with the numbers 3 and minus 3 highlighted. These are equidistant from 0, both being 3 numbers away from 0.
    Figure \(\PageIndex{2}\). The opposite of 3 is \(−3\).

    OPPOSITE NOTATION

    \[\begin{align} & −a \text{ means the opposite of the number }a \\ & \text{The notation} −a \text{ is read as “the opposite of }a \text{.”} \end{align} \]

    We saw that numbers such as 3 and −3 are opposites because they are the same distance from 0 on the number line. They are both three units from 0. The distance between 0 and any number on the number line is called the absolute value of that number.

    Definition: ABSOLUTE VALUE

    The absolute value of a number is its distance from 0 on the number line.

    The absolute value of a number \(n\) is written as \(|n|\) and \(|n|≥0\) for all numbers.

    Absolute values are always greater than or equal to zero.

    For example,

    \[\begin{align} & −5 \text{ is } 5 \text{ units away from 0, so } |−5|=5. \\ & 5 \text{ is }5\text{ units away from 0, so}|5|=5. \end{align}\]

    Figure \(\PageIndex{3}\) illustrates this idea.

    Figure shows a number line showing the numbers 0, 5 and minus 5. 5 and minus 5 are equidistant from 0, both being 5 units away from 0.

    Figure \(\PageIndex{3}\): The numbers 5 and −5−5 are 5 units away from 0.

    The absolute value of a number is never negative because distance cannot be negative. The only number with absolute value equal to zero is the number zero itself because the distance from 0 to 0 on the number line is zero units.

    In the next example, we’ll order expressions with absolute values.

    EXAMPLE \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    Fill in \(<,>,\) or \(=\) for each of the following pairs of numbers:

    1. \(\mathrm{|−5|}\_\_\mathrm{−|−5|}\_\_\mathrm{−|5|}\)
    2. \(\text{8__−|−8|}\)
    3. \(\text{−9__−|−9|}\)
    4. (\text{−(−16)__|−16|}\).
    Answer

    \(\begin{array}{lrcc} { \text{ } \\ \text{Simplify.} \\ \text{Order.} \\ \text{ } } & {|−5| \\ 5 \\ 5 \\ |−5|} & {\_\_ \\ \_\_ \\ > \\ >} & {−|−5| \\ −5 \\ −5 \\ −|−5|} \end{array}\)

    \(\begin{array}{llcc} { \text{ } \\ \text{Simplify.} \\ \text{Order.} \\ \text{ } } & {8 \\ 8 \\ 8 \\ 8} & {\_\_ \\ \_\_ \\ > \\ >} & {−|−8| \\ −8 \\ −8 \\ −|−8|} \end{array}\)

    \(\begin{array}{lrcc} { \text{ } \\ \text{Simplify.} \\ \text{Order.} \\ \text{ } } & {−9 \\ −9 \\ −9 \\ −9} & {\_\_ \\ \_\_ \\ = \\ =} & {−|−9| \\ −9 \\ −9 \\ −|−9|} \end{array}\)

    \(\begin{array}{lrcc} { \text{ } \\ \text{Simplify.} \\ \text{Order.} \\ \text{ } } & {−(−16) \\ 16 \\ 16 \\ −(−16)} & {\_\_ \\ \_\_ \\ = \\ =} & {−|−16| \\ 16 \\ 16 \\ |−16|} \end{array}\)

    EXAMPLE \(\PageIndex{2}\)

    Fill in <,>,<,>, or == for each of the following pairs of numbers:

    ⓐ \(−9 \_\_−|−9|\) ⓑ \(2 \_\_−|−2|\) ⓒ \(−8 \_\_|−8|\) ⓓ \(−(−9) \_\_|−9|.\)

    Answer

    ⓐ \(>\) ⓑ \(>\) ⓒ \(<\)

    ⓓ \(=\)

    EXAMPLE \(\PageIndex{3}\)

    Fill in \(<,>,\) or \(=\) for each of the following pairs of numbers:

    1. \(7 \_\_ −|−7|\)
    2. \(−(−10) \_ \_|−10|\)
    3. \(|−4| \_\_ −|−4|\)
    4. \(−1 \_\_ |−1|.\)
    Answer

    ⓐ \(>\) ⓑ \(=\) ⓒ \(>\)

    ⓓ \(<\)

    We now add absolute value bars to our list of grouping symbols. When we use the order of operations, first we simplify inside the absolute value bars as much as possible, then we take the absolute value of the resulting number.

    GROUPING SYMBOLS

    \[\begin{array}{lclc} \text{Parentheses} & () & \text{Braces} & \{ \} \\ \text{Brackets} & [] & \text{Absolute value} & ||\end{array}\]

    In the next example, we simplify the expressions inside absolute value bars first just like we do with parentheses.

    EXAMPLE \(\PageIndex{4}\)

    Simplify: \(\mathrm{24−|19−3(6−2)|}\).

    Answer

    \(\begin{array}{lc} \text{} & 24−|19−3(6−2)| \\ \text{Work inside parentheses first:} & \text{} \\ \text{subtract 2 from 6.} & 24−|19−3(4)| \\ \text{Multiply 3(4).} & 24−|19−12| \\ \text{Subtract inside the absolute value bars.} & 24−|7| \\ \text{Take the absolute value.} & 24−7 \\ \text{Subtract.} & 17 \end{array}\)

    EXAMPLE \(\PageIndex{5}\)

    Simplify: \(19−|11−4(3−1)|\).

    Answer

    16

    EXAMPLE \(\PageIndex{6}\)

    Simplify: \(9−|8−4(7−5)|\).

    Answer

    9

    Add and Subtract Integers

    So far, we have only used the counting numbers and the whole numbers.

    \[\begin{array}{ll} \text{Counting numbers} & 1,2,3… \\ \text{Whole numbers} 0,1,2,3…. \end{array}\]

    Our work with opposites gives us a way to define the integers. The whole numbers and their opposites are called the integers. The integers are the numbers \(…−3,−2,−1,0,1,2,3…\)

    Definition: INTEGERS

    The whole numbers and their opposites are called the integers.

    The integers are the numbers

    \[…-3,-2,-1,0,1,2,3…,\]

    Most students are comfortable with the addition and subtraction facts for positive numbers. But doing addition or subtraction with both positive and negative numbers may be more challenging.

    We will use two color counters to model addition and subtraction of negatives so that you can visualize the procedures instead of memorizing the rules.

    We let one color (blue) represent positive. The other color (red) will represent the negatives.

    Figure show two circles labeled positive blue and negative red.

    If we have one positive counter and one negative counter, the value of the pair is zero. They form a neutral pair. The value of this neutral pair is zero.

    Figure shows a blue circle and a red circle encircled in a larger shape. This is labeled 1 plus minus 1 equals 0.

    We will use the counters to show how to add:

    \[5+3 \; \; \; \; \; \; −5+(−3) \; \; \; \; \; \; −5+3 \; \; \; \; \; \; \; 5+(−3)\]

    The first example, \(5+3,\) adds 5 positives and 3 positives—both positives.

    The second example, \(−5+(−3),\) adds 5 negatives and 3 negatives—both negatives.

    When the signs are the same, the counters are all the same color, and so we add them. In each case we get 8—either 8 positives or 8 negatives.

    Figure on the left is labeled 5 plus 3. It shows 8 blue circles. 5 plus 3 equals 8. Figure on the right is labeled minus 5 plus open parentheses minus 3 close parentheses. It shows 8 blue circles labeled 8 negatives. Minus 5 plus open parentheses minus 3 close parentheses equals minus 8.

    So what happens when the signs are different? Let’s add \(−5+3\) and \(5+(−3)\).

    When we use counters to model addition of positive and negative integers, it is easy to see whether there are more positive or more negative counters. So we know whether the sum will be positive or negative.

    Figure on the left is labeled minus 5 plus 3. It has 5 red circles and 3 blue circles. Three pairs of red and blue circles are formed. More negatives means the sum is negative. The figure on the right is labeled 5 plus minus 3. It has 5 blue and 3 red circles. Three pairs of red and blue circles are formed. More positives means the sum is positive.

    EXAMPLE \(\PageIndex{7}\)

    Add: ⓐ \(−1+(−4)\) ⓑ \(−1+5\) ⓒ \(1+(−5)\).

    Answer

     
     
    1 negative plus 4 negatives is 5 negatives

     
     
    There are more positives, so the sum is positive.

     
     
    There are more negatives, so the sum is negative.

    EXAMPLE \(\PageIndex{8}\)

    Add: ⓐ \(−2+(−4)\) ⓑ \(−2+4\) ⓒ \(2+(−4)\).

    Answer

    ⓐ \(−6\) ⓑ \(2\) ⓒ \(−2\)

    EXAMPLE \(\PageIndex{9}\)

    Add: ⓐ \(−2+(−5)\) ⓑ \(−2+5\) ⓒ \(2+(−5)\).

    Answer

    ⓐ \(−7\) ⓑ \(3\) ⓒ \(−3\)

    We will continue to use counters to model the subtraction. Perhaps when you were younger, you read \(“5−3”\) as “5 take away 3.” When you use counters, you can think of subtraction the same way!

    We will use the counters to show to subtract:

    \[5−3 \; \; \; \; \; \; −5−(−3) \; \; \; \; \; \; −5−3 \; \; \; \; \; \; 5−(−3) \]

    The first example, \(5−3\), we subtract 3 positives from 5 positives and end up with 2 positives.

    In the second example, \(−5−(−3),\) we subtract 3 negatives from 5 negatives and end up with 2 negatives.

    Each example used counters of only one color, and the “take away” model of subtraction was easy to apply.

    Figure on the left is labeled 5 minus 3 equals 2. There are 5 blue circles. Three of these are encircled and an arrow indicates that they are taken away. The figure on the right is labeled minus 5 minus open parentheses minus 3 close parentheses equals minus 2. There are 5 red circles. Three of these are encircled and an arrow indicates that they are taken away.

    What happens when we have to subtract one positive and one negative number? We’ll need to use both blue and red counters as well as some neutral pairs. If we don’t have the number of counters needed to take away, we add neutral pairs. Adding a neutral pair does not change the value. It is like changing quarters to nickels—the value is the same, but it looks different.

    Let’s look at \(−5−3\) and \(5−(−3)\).

     
    Model the first number.
    We now add the needed neutral pairs.
    We remove the number of counters modeled by the second number.
    Count what is left.
     
     

    EXAMPLE \(\PageIndex{10}\)

    Subtract: ⓐ \(3−1\) ⓑ \(−3−(−1)\) ⓒ \(−3−1\) ⓓ \(3−(−1)\).

    Answer

     
    Take 1 positive from 3 positives and get 2 positives.  

     
    Take 1 positive from 3 negatives and get 2 negatives.  

     
    Take 1 positive from the one added neutral pair.

     
    Take 1 negative from the one added neutral pair.

    EXAMPLE \(\PageIndex{11}\)

    Subtract: ⓐ \(6−4\) ⓑ \(−6−(−4)\) ⓒ \(−6−4\) ⓓ \(6−(−4)\).

    Answer

    ⓐ \(2\) ⓑ \(−2\) ⓒ \(−10\) ⓓ \(10\)

    EXAMPLE \(\PageIndex{12}\)

    Subtract: ⓐ \(7−4\) ⓑ \(−7−(−4)\) ⓒ \(−7−4\) ⓓ \(7−(−4)\).

    Answer

    ⓐ \(3\) ⓑ \(−3\) ⓒ \(−11\) ⓓ \(11\)

    Have you noticed that subtraction of signed numbers can be done by adding the opposite? In the last example, \(−3−1\) is the same as \(−3+(−1)\) and \(3−(−1)\) is the same as \(3+1\). You will often see this idea, the Subtraction Property, written as follows:

    Definition: SUBTRACTION PROPERTY

    \[a−b=a+(−b)\]

    Subtracting a number is the same as adding its opposite.

    EXAMPLE \(\PageIndex{13}\)

    Simplify: ⓐ \(13−8\) and \(13+(−8)\) ⓑ \(−17−9\) and \(−17+(−9)\) ⓒ \(9−(−15)\) and \(9+15\) ⓓ \(−7−(−4)\) and \(−7+4\).

    Answer

    \(\begin{array}{lccc} \text{} & 13−8 & \text{and} & 13+(−8) \\ \text{Subtract.} & 5 & \text{} & 5 \end{array}\)

    \(\begin{array}{lccc} \text{} & −17−9 & \text{and} & −17+(−9) \\ \text{Subtract.} & −26 & \text{} & −26 \end{array}\)

    \(\begin{array}{lccc} \text{} & 9−(−15) & \text{and} & 9+15 \\ \text{Subtract.} & 24 & \text{} & 24 \end{array}\)

    \(\begin{array}{lccc} \text{} & −7−(−4) & \text{and} & −7+4 \\ \text{Subtract.} & −3 & \text{} & −3 \end{array}\)

    EXAMPLE \(\PageIndex{14}\)

    Simplify: ⓐ \(21−13\) and \(21+(−13)\) ⓑ \(−11−7\) and \(−11+(−7)\) ⓒ \(6−(−13)\) and \(6+13\) ⓓ \(−5−(−1)\) and \(−5+1\).

    Answer

    ⓐ \(8,8\) ⓑ \(−18,−18\)

    ⓒ \(19,19\) ⓓ \(−4,−4\)

    EXAMPLE \(\PageIndex{15}\)

    Simplify: ⓐ \(15−7\) and \(15+(−7)\) ⓑ \(−14−8\) and \(−14+(−8)\) ⓒ \(4−(−19)\) and \(4+19\) ⓓ \(−4−(−7)\) and \(−4+7\).

    Answer

    ⓐ \(8,8\) ⓑ \(−22,−22\)

    ⓒ \(23,23\) ⓓ \(3,3\)

    What happens when there are more than three integers? We just use the order of operations as usual.

    EXAMPLE \(\PageIndex{16}\)

    Simplify: \(7−(−4−3)−9.\)

    Answer

    \(\begin{array}{lc} \text{} & 7−(−4−3)−9 \\ \text{Simplify inside the parentheses first.} & 7−(−7)−9 \\ \text{Subtract left to right.} & 14−9 \\ \text{Subtract.} & 5 \end{array}\)

    EXAMPLE \(\PageIndex{17}\)

    Simplify: \(8−(−3−1)−9.\)

    Answer

    3

    EXAMPLE \(\PageIndex{18}\)

    Simplify: \(12−(−9−6)−14.\)

    Answer

    13

    Multiply and Divide Integers

    Since multiplication is mathematical shorthand for repeated addition, our model can easily be applied to show multiplication of integers. Let’s look at this concrete model to see what patterns we notice. We will use the same examples that we used for addition and subtraction. Here, we are using the model just to help us discover the pattern.

    We remember that a⋅ba·b means add a, b times.

    The figure on the left is labeled 5 dot 3. Here, we need to add 5, 3 times. Three rows of five blue counters each are shown. This makes 15 positives. Hence, 5 times 3 is 15. The figure on the right is labeled minus 5 open parentheses 3 close parentheses. Here we need to add minus 5, 3 times. Three rows of five red counters each are shown. This makes 15 negatives. Hence, minus 5 times 3 is minus 15.

    The next two examples are more interesting. What does it mean to multiply 5 by −3? It means subtract 5,3 times. Looking at subtraction as “taking away”, it means to take away 5, 3 times. But there is nothing to take away, so we start by adding neutral pairs on the workspace.

    The figure on the left is labeled 5 open parentheses minus 3 close parentheses. We need to take away 5, three times. Three rows of five positive counters each and three rows of five negative counters each are shown. What is left is 15 negatives. Hence, 5 times minus 3 is minus 15. The figure on the right is labeled open parentheses minus 5 close parentheses open parentheses minus 3 close parentheses. We need to take away minus 5, three times. Three rows of five positive counters each and three rows of five negative counters each are shown. What is left is 15 positives. Hence, minus 5 times minus 3 is 15.

    In summary:

    \[\begin{array}{ll} 5·3=15 & −5(3)=−15 \\ 5(−3)=−15 & (−5)(−3)=15 \end{array}\]

    Notice that for multiplication of two signed numbers, when the

    \[ \text{signs are the } \textbf{same} \text{, the product is } \textbf{positive.} \\ \text{signs are } \textbf{different} \text{, the product is } \textbf{negative.} \]

    What about division? Division is the inverse operation of multiplication. So, \(15÷3=5\) because \(15·3=15\). In words, this expression says that 15 can be divided into 3 groups of 5 each because adding five three times gives 15. If you look at some examples of multiplying integers, you might figure out the rules for dividing integers.

    \[\begin{array}{lclrccl} 5·3=15 & \text{so} & 15÷3=5 & \text{ } −5(3)=−15 & \text{so} & −15÷3=−5 \\ (−5)(−3)=15 & \text{so} & 15÷(−3)=−5 & \text{ } 5(−3)=−15 & \text{so} & −15÷(−3)=5 \end{array}\]

    Division follows the same rules as multiplication with regard to signs.

    MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION OF SIGNED NUMBERS

    For multiplication and division of two signed numbers:

    Same signs Result
    • Two positives Positive
    • Two negatives Positive

    If the signs are the same, the result is positive.

    Different signs Result
    • Positive and negative Negative
    • Negative and positive Negative

    If the signs are different, the result is negative.

    EXAMPLE \(\PageIndex{19}\)

    Multiply or divide: ⓐ \(−100÷(−4)\) ⓑ \(7⋅6\) ⓒ \(4(−8)\) ⓓ \(−27÷3.\)

    Answer

    \(\begin{array}{lc} \text{} & −100÷(−4) \\ \text{Divide, with signs that are} \\ \text{the same the quotient is positive.} & 25 \end{array}\)

    \(\begin{array} {lc} \text{} & 7·6 \\ \text{Multiply, with same signs.} & 42 \end{array}\)

    \(\begin{array} {lc} \text{} & 4(−8) \\ \text{Multiply, with different signs.} & −32 \end{array}\)

    \(\begin{array}{lc} \text{} & −27÷3 \\ \text{Divide, with different signs,} \\ \text{the quotient is negative.} & −9 \end{array}\)

    EXAMPLE \(\PageIndex{20}\)

    Multiply or divide: ⓐ \(−115÷(−5)\) ⓑ \(5⋅12\) ⓒ \(9(−7)\) ⓓ\(−63÷7.\)

    Answer

    ⓐ 23 ⓑ 60 ⓒ −63 ⓓ −9

    EXAMPLE \(\PageIndex{21}\)

    Multiply or divide: ⓐ \(−117÷(−3)\) ⓑ \(3⋅13\) ⓒ \(7(−4)\) ⓓ\(−42÷6\).

    Answer

    ⓐ 39 ⓑ 39 ⓒ −28 ⓓ −7

    When we multiply a number by 1, the result is the same number. Each time we multiply a number by −1, we get its opposite!

    MULTIPLICATION BY −1

    \[−1a=−a\]

    Multiplying a number by \(−1\) gives its opposite.

     

    Simplify Expressions with Integers

    What happens when there are more than two numbers in an expression? The order of operations still applies when negatives are included. Remember Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally?

    Let’s try some examples. We’ll simplify expressions that use all four operations with integers—addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. Remember to follow the order of operations.

    EXAMPLE \(\PageIndex{22}\)

    Simplify: ⓐ \((−2)^4\) ⓑ \(−2^4\).

    Answer

    Notice the difference in parts (a) and (b). In part (a), the exponent means to raise what is in the parentheses, the −2 to the 4thpower. In part (b), the exponent means to raise just the 2 to the 4th power and then take the opposite.

    \(\begin{array}{lc} \text{} & (−2)^4 \\ \text{Write in expanded form.} & (−2)(−2)(−2)(−2) \\ \text{Multiply.} & 4(−2)(−2) \\ \text{Multiply.} & −8(−2) \\ \text{Multiply.} & 16 \end{array}\)

    \(\begin{array}{lc} \text{} & −2^4 \\ \text{Write in expanded form.} & −(2·2·2·2) \\ \text{We are asked to find} & \text{} \\ \text{the opposite of }24. & \text{} \\ \text{Multiply.} & −(4·2·2) \\ \text{Multiply.} & −(8·2) \\ \text{Multiply.} & −16 \end{array}\)

    EXAMPLE \(\PageIndex{23}\)

    Simplify: ⓐ \((−3)^4\) ⓑ \(−3^4\).

    Answer

    ⓐ 81 ⓑ −81

    EXAMPLE \(\PageIndex{24}\)

    Simplify: ⓐ \((−7)^2\) ⓑ \(−7^2\).

    Answer

    ⓐ 49 ⓑ −49

    The last example showed us the difference between \((−2)^4\) and \(−2^4\). This distinction is important to prevent future errors. The next example reminds us to multiply and divide in order left to right.

    EXAMPLE \(\PageIndex{25}\)

    Simplify: ⓐ \(8(−9)÷(−2)^3\) ⓑ \(−30÷2+(−3)(−7)\).

    Answer

    \(\begin{array}{lc} \text{} & 8(−9)÷(−2)^3 \\ \text{Exponents first.} & 8(−9)÷(−8) \\ \text{Multiply.} & −72÷(−8) \\ \text{Divide.} & 9 \end{array}\)

    \(\begin{array}{lc} \text{} & −30÷2+(−3)(−7) \\ \text{Multiply and divide} \\ \text{left to right, so divide first.} & −15+(−3)(−7) \\ \text{Multiply.} & −15+21 \\ \text{Add.} & 6 \end{array}\)

    EXAMPLE \(\PageIndex{26}\)

    Simplify: ⓐ \(12(−9)÷(−3)^3\) ⓑ \(−27÷3+(−5)(−6).\)

    Answer

    ⓐ 4 ⓑ 21

    EXAMPLE \(\PageIndex{27}\)

    Simplify: ⓐ \(18(−4)÷(−2)^3\) ⓑ \(−32÷4+(−2)(−7).\)

    Answer

    ⓐ 9 ⓑ 6

    Evaluate Variable Expressions with Integers

    Remember that to evaluate an expression means to substitute a number for the variable in the expression. Now we can use negative numbers as well as positive numbers.

    EXAMPLE \(\PageIndex{28}\)

    Evaluate \(4x^2−2xy+3y^2\) when \(x=2,y=−1\).

    Answer
     
    Simplify exponents.
    Multiply.
    Subtract.
    Add.

    EXAMPLE \(\PageIndex{29}\)

    Evaluate: \(3x^2−2xy+6y^2\) when \(x=1,y=−2\).

    Answer

    31

    EXAMPLE \(\PageIndex{30}\)

    Evaluate: \(4x^2−xy+5y^2\) when \(x=−2,y=3\).

    Answer

    67

    Translate Phrases to Expressions with Integers

    Our earlier work translating English to algebra also applies to phrases that include both positive and negative numbers.

    EXAMPLE \(\PageIndex{31}\)

    Translate and simplify: the sum of 8 and −12, increased by 3.

    Answer

    \(\begin{array}{lc} \text{} & \text{the } \textbf{sum } \underline{\text{of}} \; –8 \; \underline{\text{and}} −12 \text{ increased by } 3 \\ \text{Translate.} & [8+(−12)]+3 \\ \text{Simplify. Be careful not to confuse the} \; \; \; \; \; \; \; \; \; \; & (−4)+3 \\ \text{brackets with an absolute value sign.} \\ \text{Add.} & −1 \end{array}\)

    EXAMPLE \(\PageIndex{32}\)

    Translate and simplify the sum of 9 and −16, increased by 4.

    Answer

    \((9+(−16))+4;−3\)

    EXAMPLE \(\PageIndex{33}\)

    Translate and simplify the sum of −8 and −12, increased by 7.

    Answer

    \((−8+(−12))+7;−13\)

    Use Integers in Applications

    We’ll outline a plan to solve applications. It’s hard to find something if we don’t know what we’re looking for or what to call it! So when we solve an application, we first need to determine what the problem is asking us to find. Then we’ll write a phrase that gives the information to find it. We’ll translate the phrase into an expression and then simplify the expression to get the answer. Finally, we summarize the answer in a sentence to make sure it makes sense.

    EXAMPLE \(\PageIndex{34}\): How to Solve Application Problems Using Integers

    The temperature in Kendallville, Indiana one morning was 11 degrees. By mid-afternoon, the temperature had dropped to −9−9degrees. What was the difference in the morning and afternoon temperatures?

    Figure shows a glass thermometer, with temperature markings ranging from minus 10 to 30. Two markings are highlighted, minus 9 degrees C and 11 degrees C.
    Answer

    Step 1 is to read the problem and make sure all the words and ideas are understood.

    Step 2 is to identify what we are asked to find. Here, we need to find the difference of the morning and afternoon temperatures.

    Step 3 is to write a phrase that gives the information to find it. In this case, the phrase is the difference of 11 and minus 9.

    Step 4 is to translate the phrase to an expression. Here, we write 11 minus open parentheses minus 9 close parentheses.

    In step 5, we simplify the expression to get 20.

    Step 6 is to answer the question with a complete sentence: The difference in temperatures was 20 degrees.

    EXAMPLE \(\PageIndex{35}\)

    The temperature in Anchorage, Alaska one morning was 15 degrees. By mid-afternoon the temperature had dropped to 30 degrees below zero. What was the difference in the morning and afternoon temperatures?

    Answer

    The difference in temperatures was 45 degrees Fahrenheit.

    EXAMPLE \(\PageIndex{36}\)

    The temperature in Denver was −6 degrees at lunchtime. By sunset the temperature had dropped to −15 degrees. What was the difference in the lunchtime and sunset temperatures?

    Answer

    The difference in temperatures was 9 degrees.

    USE INTEGERS IN APPLICATIONS.

    1. Read the problem. Make sure all the words and ideas are understood.
    2. Identify what we are asked to find.
    3. Write a phrase that gives the information to find it.
    4. Translate the phrase to an expression.
    5. Simplify the expression.
    6. Answer the question with a complete sentence.

    Access this online resource for additional instruction and practice with integers.

    Key Concepts

    • Opposite Notation

      \[\begin{align} & −a \text{ means the opposite of the number }a \\ & \text{The notation} −a \text{ is read as “the opposite of }a \text{.”} \end{align} \]

    • Absolute Value

      The absolute value of a number is its distance from 0 on the number line.

      The absolute value of a number n is written as \(|n|\) and \(|n|≥0\) for all numbers.

      Absolute values are always greater than or equal to zero.

    • Grouping Symbols

      \[\begin{array}{lclc} \text{Parentheses} & () & \text{Braces} & \{ \} \\ \text{Brackets} & [] & \text{Absolute value} & ||\end{array}\]

    • Subtraction Property
      \(a−b=a+(−b)\)
      Subtracting a number is the same as adding its opposite.
    • Multiplication and Division of Signed Numbers

      For multiplication and division of two signed numbers:

      Same signs Result
      • Two positives Positive
      • Two negatives Positive
      If the signs are the same, the result is positive.
      Different signs Result
      • Positive and negative Negative
      • Negative and positive Negative
      If the signs are different, the result is negative.
    • Multiplication by \(−1\)

      \(−1a=−a\)

      Multiplying a number by \(−1\) gives its opposite.

    • How to Use Integers in Applications.
      1. Read the problem. Make sure all the words and ideas are understood
      2. Identify what we are asked to find.
      3. Write a phrase that gives the information to find it.
      4. Translate the phrase to an expression.
      5. Simplify the expression.
      6. Answer the question with a complete sentence.

    Practice Makes Perfect

    Simplify Expressions with Absolute Value

    In the following exercises, fill in \(<,>,\) or \(=\) for each of the following pairs of numbers.

     

    ⓐ \(|−7| \text{ ___ }−|−7|\)

    ⓑ \(6 \text{ ___ }−|−6|\)

    ⓒ \(|−11|\text{ ___ }−11\)

    ⓓ \(−(−13)\text{ ___ }−|−13|\)

    Answer

    ⓐ \(>\) ⓑ \(>\) ⓒ \(>\) ⓓ \(>\)

     

    ⓐ \(−|−9| \text{ ___ } |−9|\)

    ⓑ \(−8 \text{ ___ } |−8| \)

    ⓒ \(|−1| \text{ ___ } −1 \)

    ⓓ \(−(−14) \text{ ___ } −|−14|\)

     

    ⓐ \(−|2| \text{ ___ }−|−2|\)

    ⓑ \(−12 \text{ ___ }−|−12|\)

    ⓒ \(|−3| \text{ ___ }−3\)

    ⓓ \(|−19| \text{ ___ }−(−19) \)

    Answer

    ⓐ \(=\) ⓑ \(=\) ⓒ \(>\) ⓓ \(=\)

     

    ⓐ \(−|−4| \text{ ___ } −|4| \)

    ⓑ \(5 \text{ ___ } −|−5| \)

    ⓒ \( −|−10| \text{ ___ } −10 \)

    ⓓ \(−|−0| \text{ ___ } −(−0) \)

    In the following exercises, simplify.

    \(|15−7|−|14−6|\)

    Answer

    0

    \(|17−8|−|13−4|\)

    \(18−|2(8−3)|\)

    Answer

    8

    \(15−|3(8−5)|\)

    \(18−|12−4(4−1)+3|\)

    Answer

    15

    \(27−|19+4(3−1)−7|\)

    \(10−3|9−3(3−1)|\)

    Answer

    1

    \(13−2|11−2(5−2)|\)

    Add and Subtract Integers

    In the following exercises, simplify each expression.

     

    ⓐ \(−7+(−4)\)

    ⓑ \(−7+4\)

    ⓒ \(7+(−4).\)

    Answer

    ⓐ \(−11\) ⓑ \(−3\) ⓒ \(3\)

    ⓐ \(−5+(−9)\)

    ⓑ \(−5+9\)

    ⓒ \(5+(−9)\)

     

    \(48+(−16)\)

    Answer

    32

    \(34+(−19)\)

    \(−14+(−12)+4\)

    Answer

    \(-22\)

    \(−17+(−18)+6\)

    \(19+2(−3+8)\)

    Answer

    \(29\)

    \(24+3(−5+9)\)

    ⓐ \(13−7\)

    ⓑ \(−13−(−7)\)

    ⓒ \(−13−7\)

    ⓓ \(13−(−7)\)

    Answer

    ⓐ 6 ⓑ −6 ⓒ −20 ⓓ 20

     

    ⓐ \(15−8\)

    ⓑ \(−15−(−8)\)

    ⓒ \(−15−8\)

    ⓓ \(15−(−8)\)

    \(−17−42\)

    Answer

    \(-59\)

    \(−58−(−67)\)

    \(−14−(−27)+9\)

    Answer

    22

    \(64+(−17)−9\)

    ⓐ \(44−28\) ⓑ \(44+(−28)\)

    Answer

    ⓐ 16 ⓑ16

    ⓐ\(35−16\) ⓑ \(35+(−16)\)

    ⓐ \(27−(−18)\) ⓑ \(27+18\)

    Answer

    ⓐ 45 ⓑ45

    ⓐ \(46−(−37)\) ⓑ \(46+37\)

    \((2−7)−(3−8)\)

    Answer

    0

    \((1−8)−(2−9)\)

    \(−(6−8)−(2−4)\)

    Answer

    4

    \(−(4−5)−(7−8)\)

    \(25−[10−(3−12)]\)

    Answer

    6

    \(32−[5−(15−20)]\)

    Multiply and Divide Integers

    In the following exercises, multiply or divide.

     

    ⓐ \(−4⋅8\)

    ⓑ \(13(−5)\)

    ⓒ \(−24÷6\)

    ⓓ \(−52÷(−4)\)

    Answer

    ⓐ \(−32\) ⓑ \(−65\) ⓒ \(−4\) ⓓ \(13\)

    ⓐ \(−3⋅9\)

    ⓑ \(9(−7)\)

    ⓒ \(35÷(−7)\)

    ⓓ \(−84÷(−6)\)

    ⓐ\(−28÷7\)

    ⓑ\(−180÷15\)

    ⓒ \(3(−13)\)

    ⓓ \(−1(−14)\)

    Answer

    ⓐ \(−4\) ⓑ \(−12\) ⓒ \(−39\) ⓓ \(14\)

    ⓐ \(−36÷4\)

    ⓑ \(−192÷12\)

    ⓒ \(9(−7)\)

    ⓓ \(−1(−19)\)

    Simplify and Evaluate Expressions with Integers

    In the following exercises , simplify each expression.

    ⓐ \((−2)^6\) ⓑ \(−2^6\)

    Answer

    ⓐ \(64\) ⓑ \(−64\)

    ⓐ \((−3)^5\) ⓑ \(−3^5\)

    \(5(−6)+7(−2)−3\)

    Answer

    \(−47\)

    \(8(−4)+5(−4)−6\)

    \(−3(−5)(6)\)

    Answer

    \(90\)

    \(−4(−6)(3)\)

    \((8−11)(9−12)\)

    Answer

    \(9\)

    \((6−11)(8−13)\)

    \(26−3(2−7)\)

    Answer

    \(41\)

    \(23−2(4−6)\)

    \(65÷(−5)+(−28)÷(−7)\)

    Answer

    \(-9\)

    \(52÷(−4)+(−32)÷(−8)\)

    \(9−2[3−8(−2)]\)

    Answer

    \(-29\)

    \(11−3[7−4(−2)]\)

    \(8−|2−4(4−1)+3|\)

    Answer

    \(1\)

    \(7−|5−3(4−1)−6|\)

    \(9−3|2(2−6)−(3−7)|\)

    Answer

    \(-3\)

    \(5−2|2(1−4)−(2−5)|\)

    \((−3)^2−24÷(8−2)\)

    Answer

    \(5\)

    \((−4)^2−32÷(12−4)\)

    In the following exercises , evaluate each expression.

    \(y+(−14)\) when

    ⓐ \(y=−33\) ⓑ \(y=30\)

    Answer

    ⓐ \(−47\) ⓑ \(16\)

    \(x+(−21)\) when

    ⓐ \(x=−27\) ⓑ \(x=44\)

    \((x+y)^2\) when

    \(x=−3,y=14\)

    Answer

    \(121\)

    \((y+z)^2\) when

    \(y=−3,z=15\)

    \(9a−2b−8\) when

    \(a=−6\) and \(b=−3\)

    Answer

    \(-56\)

    \(7m−4n−2\) when

    \(m=−4\) and \(n=−9\)

    \(3x^2−4xy+2y^2\) when

    \(x=−2,y=−3\)

    Answer

    \(6\)

    \(4x^2−xy+3y^2\) when

    \(x=−3,y=−2\)

    Translate English Phrases to Algebraic Expressions

    In the following exercises, translate to an algebraic expression and simplify if possible.

    the sum of 3 and −15, increased by 7

    Answer

    \((3+(−15))+7;−5\)

    the sum of \(−8\) and \(−9\), increased by \(23\)

    ⓐ the difference of \(10\) and \(−18\)

    ⓑ subtract \(11\) from \(−25\)

    Answer

    ⓐ \(10−(−18);28\)

    ⓑ\(−25−11;−36\)

    ⓐ the difference of \(−5\) and \(−30\)

    ⓑ subtract \(−6\) from \(−13\)

    the quotient of \(−6\) and the sum of \(a\) and \(b\)

    Answer

    \(\frac{−6}{a+b}\)frac{−6}{a+b}\)

    the product of \(−13\) and the difference of \(c\) and \(d\

    Use Integers in Applications

    In the following exercises, solve.

    Temperature On January 15, the high temperature in Anaheim, California, was \(84°\). That same day, the high temperature in Embarrass, Minnesota, was \(−12°\). What was the difference between the temperature in Anaheim and the temperature in Embarrass?

    Answer

    \(96^\circ\)

    Temperature On January 21, the high temperature in Palm Springs, California, was \(89°\), and the high temperature in Whitefield, New Hampshire, was \(−31°\). What was the difference between the temperature in Palm Springs and the temperature in Whitefield?

    Football On the first down, the Chargers had the ball on their 25-yard line. On the next three downs, they lost 6 yards, gained 10 yards, and lost 8 yards. What was the yard line at the end of the fourth down?

    Answer

    21

    Football On the first down, the Steelers had the ball on their 30-yard line. On the next three downs, they gained 9 yards, lost 14 yards, and lost 2 yards. What was the yard line at the end of the fourth down?

    Checking Account Mayra has $124 in her checking account. She writes a check for $152. What is the new balance in her checking account?

    Answer

    \(−\$ 28\)

    Checking Account Reymonte has a balance of \(−$49\) in his checking account. He deposits $281 to the account. What is the new balance?

     

    Writing Exercises

    Explain why the sum of −8 and 2 is negative, but the sum of 8 and −2 is positive.

    Answer

    Answers will vary.

    Give an example from your life experience of adding two negative numbers.

    In your own words, state the rules for multiplying and dividing integers.

    Answer

    Answers will vary.

    Why is \(−4^3=(−4)^3\_?\)

    Self Check

    ⓐ After completing the EXAMPLEs, use this checklist to evaluate your mastery of the objectives of this section.

    This table has 4 columns, 6 rows and a header row. The header row labels each column I can, confidently, with some help and no, I don’t get it. The first column has the following statements: simplify expressions with absolute value, add and subtract integers, multiply and divide integers, simplify and evaluate expressions with integers, translate English phrases to algebraic expressions, use integers in applications. The remaining columns are blank.

    ⓑ After reviewing this checklist, what will you do to become confident for all objectives?

    Glossary

    absolute value
    The absolute value of a number is its distance from \(0\) on the number line.
    integers
    The whole numbers and their opposites are called the integers.
    negative numbers
    Numbers less than \(0\) are negative numbers.
    opposite
    The opposite of a number is the number that is the same distance from zero on the number line but on the opposite side of zero.