# 6.E: Applications of Integration (Exercises)

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- Contributed by Gilbert Strang & Edwin “Jed” Herman
- Professor (Mathematics) at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Strang) & University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point (Herman)
- Publisher: OpenStax CNX

These are homework exercises to accompany OpenStax's "Calculus" Textmap.

**For exercises 1 - 2, determine the area of the region between the two curves in the given figure by integrating over the \(x\)-axis.**

1) \(y=x^2−3\) and \(y=1\)

**Answer:**- \(\dfrac{3}{2} \, \text{units}^2\)

2) \(y=x^2\) and \(y=3x+4\)

**For exercises 3 - 4, split the region between the two curves into two smaller regions, then determine the area by integrating over the \(x\)-axis. Note that you will have two integrals to solve.**

3) \(y=x^3\) and \( y=x^2+x\)

**Answer:**- \(\dfrac{13}{12}\, \text{units}^2\)

4) \(y=\cos θ\) and \( y=0.5\), for \( 0≤θ≤π\)

**For exercises 5-6, determine the area of the region between the two curves by integrating over the \(y\)-axis.**

5) \(x=y^2\) and \(x=9\)

**Answer:**- \(36 \, \text{units}^2\)

6) \(y=x\) and \( x=y^2\)

**For exercises 7 - 13, graph the equations and shade the area of the region between the curves. Determine its area by integrating over the \(x\)-axis.**

7) \(y=x^2\) and \(y=−x^2+8x\)

**Answer:**-
243 square units

8) \(y=\dfrac{1}{x}, \quad y=\dfrac{1}{x^2}\), and \(x=3\)

9) \(y=\cos x\) and \(y=\cos^2x\) on \(x \in [−π,π]\)

**Answer:**-
4 square units

10) \(y=e^x,\quad y=e^{2x−1}\), and \(x=0\)

11) \(y=e^x, \quad y=e^{−x}, \quad x=−1\) and \(x=1\)

**Answer:**-
\(\dfrac{2(e−1)^2}{e}\, \text{units}^2\)

12) \( y=e, \quad y=e^x,\) and \(y=e^{−x}\)

13) \(y=|x|\) and \(y=x^2\)

**Answer:**-
\(\dfrac{1}{3}\, \text{units}^2\)

**For exercises 14 - 19, graph the equations and shade the area of the region between the curves. If necessary, break the region into sub-regions to determine its entire area.**

14) \(y=\sin(πx),\quad y=2x,\) and \(x>0\)

15) \(y=12−x,\quad y=\sqrt{x},\) and \(y=1\)

**Answer:**-
\(\dfrac{34}{3}\, \text{units}^2\)

16) \(y=\sin x\) and \(y=\cos x\) over \(x \in [−π,π]\)

17) \(y=x^3\) and \(y=x^2−2x\) over \(x \in [−1,1]\)

**Answer:**-
\(\dfrac{5}{2}\, \text{units}^2\)

18) \(y=x^2+9\) and \( y=10+2x\) over \(x \in [−1,3]\)

19) \(y=x^3+3x\) and \(y=4x\)

**Answer:**-
\(\dfrac{1}{2}\, \text{units}^2\)

**For exercises 20 -25, graph the equations and shade the area of the region between the curves. Determine its area by integrating over the \(y\)-axis.**

20) \(x=y^3\) and \( x = 3y−2\)

21) \(x=y\) and \( x=y^3−y\)

**Answer:**-
\(\dfrac{9}{2}\, \text{units}^2\)

22) \(x=−3+y^2\) and \( x=y−y^2\)

23) \(y^2=x\) and \(x=y+2\)

**Answer:**-
\(\dfrac{9}{2}\, \text{units}^2\)

24) \(x=|y|\) and \(2x=−y^2+2\)

25) \(x=\sin y,\quad x=\cos(2y),\quad y=π/2\), and \( y=−π/2\)

**Answer:**-
\(\dfrac{3\sqrt{3}}{2}\, \text{units}^2\)

**For exercises 26 - 37, graph the equations and shade the area of the region between the curves. Determine its area by integrating over the \(x\)-axis or \(y\)-axis, whichever seems more convenient.**

26) \(x=y^4\) and \(x=y^5\)

27) \(y=xe^x,\quad y=e^x,\quad x=0\), and \(x=1\).

**Answer:**-
\(e^{−2}\, \text{units}^2\)

28) \(y=x^6\) and \(y=x^4\)

29) \(x=y^3+2y^2+1\) and \(x=−y^2+1\)

**Answer:**-
\(\dfrac{27}{4}\, \text{units}^2\)

30) \( y=|x|\) and \( y=x^2−1\)

31) \(y=4−3x\) and \(y=\dfrac{1}{x}\)

**Answer:**-
\(\left(\dfrac{4}{3}−\ln(3)\right)\, \text{units}^2\)

32) \(y=\sin x,\quad x=−π/6,\quad x=π/6,\) and \(y=\cos^3 x\)

33) \(y=x^2−3x+2\) and \( y=x^3−2x^2−x+2\)

**Answer:**

\(\dfrac{1}{2}\) square units

34) \(y=2\cos^3(3x),\quad y=−1,\quad x=\dfrac{π}{4},\) and \( x=−\dfrac{π}{4}\)

35) \(y+y^3=x\) and \(2y=x\)

**Answer:**-
\(\dfrac{1}{2}\) square units

36) \( y=\sqrt{1−x^2}\) and \(y=x^2−1\)

37) \(y=\cos^{−1}x,\quad y=\sin^{−1}x,\quad x=−1,\) and \( x=1\)

**Answer:**-
\(−2(\sqrt{2}−π)\) square units

**For exercises 38 - 47, find the exact area of the region bounded by the given equations if possible. If you are unable to determine the intersection points analytically, use a calculator to approximate the intersection points with three decimal places and determine the approximate area of the region.**

38) [T] \(x=e^y\) and \(y=x−2\)

39) [T] \(y=x^2\) and \(y=\sqrt{1−x^2}\)

**Answer:**- \(1.067\) square units

40) [T] \(y=3x^2+8x+9\) and \(3y=x+24\)

41) [T] \(x=\sqrt{4−y^2}\) and \( y^2=1+x^2\)

**Answer:**- \(0.852\) square units

42) [T] \(x^2=y^3\) and \(x=3y\)

43) [T] \(y=\sin^3x+2,\quad y=\tan x,\quad x=−1.5,\) and \(x=1.5\)

**Answer:**- \(7.523\) square units

44) [T] \(y=\sqrt{1−x^2}\) and \(y^2=x^2\)

45) [T] \(y=\sqrt{1−x^2}\) and \(y=x^2+2x+1\)

**Answer:**- \(\dfrac{3π−4}{12}\) square units

46) [T] \(x=4−y^2\) and \( x=1+3y+y^2\)

47) [T] \(y=\cos x,\quad y=e^x,\quad x=−π,\quad\) and\(\quad x=0\)

**Answer:**- \(1.429\) square units

48) The largest triangle with a base on the \(x\)-axis that fits inside the upper half of the unit circle \(y^2+x^2=1\) is given by \( y=1+x\) and \( y=1−x\). See the following figure. What is the area inside the semicircle but outside the triangle?

49) A factory selling cell phones has a marginal cost function \(C(x)=0.01x^2−3x+229\), where \(x\) represents the number of cell phones, and a marginal revenue function given by \(R(x)=429−2x.\) Find the area between the graphs of these curves and \(x=0.\) What does this area represent?

**Answer:****$33,333.33**total profit for**200**cell phones sold

50) An amusement park has a marginal cost function \(C(x)=1000e−x+5\), where \(x\) represents the number of tickets sold, and a marginal revenue function given by \(R(x)=60−0.1x\). Find the total profit generated when selling \(550\) tickets. Use a calculator to determine intersection points, if necessary, to two decimal places.

51) The tortoise versus the hare: The speed of the hare is given by the sinusoidal function \(H(t)=1−\cos((πt)/2)\) whereas the speed of the tortoise is \(T(t)=(1/2)\tan^{−1}(t/4)\), where \(t\) is time measured in hours and the speed is measured in miles per hour. Find the area between the curves from time \(t=0\) to the first time after one hour when the tortoise and hare are traveling at the same speed. What does it represent? Use a calculator to determine the intersection points, if necessary, accurate to three decimal places.

**Answer:**- \(3.263\) mi represents how far ahead the hare is from the tortoise

52) The tortoise versus the hare: The speed of the hare is given by the sinusoidal function \(H(t)=(1/2)−(1/2)\cos(2πt)\) whereas the speed of the tortoise is \(T(t)=\sqrt{t}\), where \(t\) is time measured in hours and speed is measured in kilometers per hour. If the race is over in 1 hour, who won the race and by how much? Use a calculator to determine the intersection points, if necessary, accurate to three decimal places.

**For exercises 53 - 55, find the area between the curves by integrating with respect to \(x\) and then with respect to \(y\). Is one method easier than the other? Do you obtain the same answer?**

53) \(y=x^2+2x+1\) and \(y=−x^2−3x+4\)

**Answer:**- \(\dfrac{343}{24}\) square units

54) \(y=x^4\) and \(x=y^5\)

55) \(x=y^2−2\) and \(x=2y\)

**Answer:**- \(4\sqrt{3}\) square units

**For exercises 56 - 57, solve using calculus, then check your answer with geometry.**

56) Determine the equations for the sides of the square that touches the unit circle on all four sides, as seen in the following figure. Find the area between the perimeter of this square and the unit circle. Is there another way to solve this without using calculus?

57) Find the area between the perimeter of the unit circle and the triangle created from \(y=2x+1,\,y=1−2x\) and \(y=−\dfrac{3}{5}\), as seen in the following figure. Is there a way to solve this without using calculus?

**Answer:**- \( \left(π−\dfrac{32}{25}\right)\) square units

## 6.2: Determining Volumes by Slicing

1) Derive the formula for the volume of a sphere using the slicing method.

2) Use the slicing method to derive the formula for the volume of a cone.

3) Use the slicing method to derive the formula for the volume of a tetrahedron with side length a.

4) Use the disk method to derive the formula for the volume of a trapezoidal cylinder.

5) Explain when you would use the disk method versus the washer method. When are they interchangeable?

**For exercises 6 - 10, draw a typical slice and find the volume using the slicing method for the given volume.**

6) A pyramid with height 6 units and square base of side 2 units, as pictured here.

**Solution:**- Here the cross-sections are squares taken perpendicular to the \(y\)-axis.

We use the vertical cross-section of the pyramid through its center to obtain an equation relating \(x\) and \(y\).

Here this would be the equation, \( y = 6 - 6x \). Since we need the dimensions of the square at each \(y\)-level, we solve this equation for \(x\) to get, \(x = 1 - \tfrac{y}{6}\).

This is half the distance across the square cross-section at the \(y\)-level, so the side length of the square cross-section is, \(s = 2\left(1 - \tfrac{y}{6}\right).\)

Thus, we have the area of a cross-section is,

\(A(y) = \left[2\left(1 - \tfrac{y}{6}\right)\right]^2 = 4\left(1 - \tfrac{y}{6}\right)^2.\)

\(\begin{align*} \text{Then},\quad V &= \int_0^6 4\left(1 - \tfrac{y}{6}\right)^2 \, dy \\[5pt]

&= -24 \int_1^0 u^2 \, du, \quad \text{where} \, u = 1 - \tfrac{y}{6}, \, \text{so} \, du = -\tfrac{1}{6}\,dy, \quad \implies \quad -6\,du = dy \\[5pt]

&= 24 \int_0^1 u^2 \, du = 24\dfrac{u^3}{3}\bigg|_0^1 \\[5pt]

&= 8u^3\bigg|_0^1 \\[5pt]

&= 8\left( 1^3 - 0^3 \right) \quad= \quad 8\, \text{units}^3 \end{align*}\)

7) A pyramid with height 4 units and a rectangular base with length 2 units and width 3 units, as pictured here.

8) A tetrahedron with a base side of 4 units,as seen here.

**Answer:**- \(V = \frac{32}{3\sqrt{2}} = \frac{16\sqrt{2}}{3}\) units
^{3}

9) A pyramid with height 5 units, and an isosceles triangular base with lengths of 6 units and 8 units, as seen here.

10) A cone of radius \( r\) and height \( h\) has a smaller cone of radius \( r/2\) and height \( h/2\) removed from the top, as seen here. The resulting solid is called a frustum.

**Answer:**- \(V = \frac{7\pi}{12} hr^2\) units
^{3}

**For exercises 11 - 16, draw an outline of the solid and find the volume using the slicing method.**

11) The base is a circle of radius \( a\). The slices perpendicular to the base are squares.

12) The base is a triangle with vertices \( (0,0),(1,0),\) and \( (0,1)\). Slices perpendicular to the \(xy\)-plane are semicircles.

**Answer:**-
\(\displaystyle V = \int_0^1 \frac{\pi(1-x)^2}{8}\, dx \quad = \quad \frac{π}{24}\) units

^{3}

13) The base is the region under the parabola \( y=1−x^2\) in the first quadrant. Slices perpendicular to the \(xy\)-plane are squares.

14) The base is the region under the parabola \( y=1−x^2\) and above the **\(x\)-axis**. Slices perpendicular to the** \(y\)-axis** are squares.

**Answer:**-
\(\displaystyle V = \int_0^1 4(1 - y)\,dy \quad = \quad 2\) units

^{3}

15) The base is the region enclosed by \( y=x^2)\) and \( y=9.\) Slices perpendicular to the \(x\)-axis are right isosceles triangles.

16) The base is the area between \( y=x\) and \( y=x^2\). Slices perpendicular to the \(x\)-axis are semicircles.

**Answer:**-
\(\displaystyle V = \int_0^1 \frac{\pi}{8}\left( x - x^2 \right)^2 \, dx \quad=\quad \frac{π}{240}\) units

^{3}

## Disk and Washer Method

**For exercises 17 - 24, draw the region bounded by the curves. Then, use the disk or washer method to find the volume when the region is rotated around the \(x\)-axis.**

17) \( x+y=8,\quad x=0\), and \( y=0\)

18) \( y=2x^2,\quad x=0,\quad x=4,\) and \( y=0\)

**Answer:**-
\(\displaystyle V = \int_0^4 4\pi x^4\, dx \quad=\quad \frac{4096π}{5}\) units

^{3}

19) \( y=e^x+1,\quad x=0,\quad x=1,\) and \( y=0\)

20) \( y=x^4,\quad x=0\), and \( y=1\)

**Answer:**-
\(\displaystyle V = \int_0^1 \pi\left( 1^2 - \left( x^4\right)^2\right)\, dx = \int_0^1 \pi\left( 1 - x^8\right)\, dx \quad = \quad \frac{8π}{9}\) units

^{3}

21) \( y=\sqrt{x},\quad x=0,\quad x=4,\) and \( y=0\)

22) \( y=\sin x,\quad y=\cos x,\) and \( x=0\)

**Answer:**-
\(\displaystyle V = \int_0^{\pi/4} \pi \left( \cos^2 x - \sin^2 x\right) \, dx = \int_0^{\pi/4} \pi \cos 2x \, dx \quad=\quad \frac{π}{2}\) units

^{3}

23) \( y=\dfrac{1}{x},\quad x=2\), and \( y=3\)

24) \( x^2−y^2=9\) and \( x+y=9,\quad y=0\) and \( x=0\)

**Answer:**-
\(V = 207π\) units

^{3}

**For exercises 25 - 32, draw the region bounded by the curves. Then, find the volume when the region is rotated around the \(y\)-axis.**

25) \( y=4−\dfrac{1}{2}x,\quad x=0,\) and \( y=0\)

26) \( y=2x^3,\quad x=0,\quad x=1,\) and \( y=0\)

**Answer:**-
\(V = \frac{4π}{5}\) units

^{3}

27) \( y=3x^2,\quad x=0,\) and \( y=3\)

28) \( y=\sqrt{4−x^2},\quad y=0,\) and \( x=0\)

**Answer:**-
\(V = \frac{16π}{3}\) units

^{3}

29) \( y=\dfrac{1}{\sqrt{x+1}},\quad x=0\), and \( x=3\)

30) \( x=\sec(y)\) and \( y=\dfrac{π}{4},\quad y=0\) and \( x=0\)

**Answer:**-
\(V = π\) units

^{3}

31) \( y=\dfrac{1}{x+1},\quad x=0\), and \( x=2\)

32) \( y=4−x,\quad y=x,\) and \( x=0\)

**Answer:**-
\(V = \frac{16π}{3}\) units

^{3}

**For exercises 33 - 40, draw the region bounded by the curves. Then, find the volume when the region is rotated around the \(x\)-axis.**

33) \( y=x+2,\quad y=x+6,\quad x=0\), and \( x=5\)

34) \( y=x^2\) and \( y=x+2\)

**Answer:**-
\(V = \frac{72π}{5}\) units

^{3}

35) \( x^2=y^3\) and \( x^3=y^2\)

36) \( y=4−x^2\) and \( y=2−x\)

**Answer:**-
\(V = \frac{108π}{5}\) units

^{3}

37) [T] \( y=\cos x,\quad y=e^{−x},\quad x=0\), and \( x=1.2927\)

38) \( y=\sqrt{x}\) and \( y=x^2\)

**Answer:**-
\(V = \frac{3π}{10}\) units

^{3}

39) \( y=\sin x,\quad y=5\sin x,\quad x=0\) and \( x=π\)

40) \( y=\sqrt{1+x^2}\) and \( y=\sqrt{4−x^2}\)

**Answer:**-
\(V = 2\sqrt{6}π\) units

^{3}

**For exercises 41 - 45, draw the region bounded by the curves. Then, use the washer method to find the volume when the region is revolved around the \(y\)-axis.**

41) \( y=\sqrt{x},\quad x=4\), and \( y=0\)

42) \( y=x+2,\quad y=2x−1\), and \( x=0\)

**Answer:**-
\(V = 9π\) units

^{3}

43) \( y=\dfrac{3}{x}\) and \( y=x^3\)

44) \( x=e^{2y},\quad x=y^2,\quad y=0\), and \( y=\ln(2)\)

**Answer:**-
\(V = \dfrac{π}{20}(75−4\ln^5(2))\) units

^{3}

45) \( x=\sqrt{9−y^2},\quad x=e^{−y},\quad y=0\), and \( y=3\)

46) Yogurt containers can be shaped like frustums. Rotate the line \( y=\left(\frac{1}{m}\right)x\) around the \(y\)-axis to find the volume between \( y=a\) and \( y=b\).

**Answer:**- \(V = \dfrac{m^2π}{3}(b^3−a^3)\) units
^{3}

47) Rotate the ellipse \( \dfrac{x^2}{a^2}+\dfrac{y^2}{b^2}=1\) around the \(x\)-axis to approximate the volume of a football, as seen here.

48) Rotate the ellipse \( \dfrac{x^2}{a^2}+\dfrac{y^2}{b^2}=1\) around the \(y\)-axis to approximate the volume of a football.

**Answer:**- \(V = \frac{4a^2bπ}{3}\) units
^{3}

49) A better approximation of the volume of a football is given by the solid that comes from rotating \( y=\sin x) around the \(x\)-axis from \( x=0\) to \( x=π\). What is the volume of this football approximation, as seen here?

**For exercises 51 - 56, find the volume of the solid described.**

51) The base is the region between \( y=x\) and \( y=x^2\). Slices perpendicular to the \(x\)-axis are semicircles.

52) The base is the region enclosed by the generic ellipse \( \dfrac{x^2}{a^2}+\dfrac{y^2}{b^2}=1.\) Slices perpendicular to the \(x\)-axis are semicircles.

**Answer:**- \(V = \frac{2ab^2π}{3}\) units
^{3}

53) Bore a hole of radius a down the axis of \(a\) right cone and through the base of radius \(b\), as seen here.

54) Find the volume common to two spheres of radius \(r\) with centers that are \(2h\) apart, as shown here.

**Answer:**- \(V = \frac{π}{12}(r+h)^2(6r−h)\) units
^{3}

55) Find the volume of a spherical cap of height \(h\) and radius \(r\) where \(h<r\), as seen here.

56) Find the volume of a sphere of radius \(R\) with a cap of height \(h\) removed from the top, as seen here.

**Answer:**- \(V = \dfrac{π}{3}(h+R)(h−2R)^2\) units
^{3}

## 6.3: Volumes of Revolution: Cylindrical Shells

**For exercises 1 - 6, find the volume generated when the region between the two curves is rotated around the given axis. Use both the shell method and the washer method. Use technology to graph the functions and draw a typical slice by hand.**

1) [T] Over the curve of \( y=3x,\) \(x=0,\) and \( y=3\) rotated around the \(y\)-axis.

2) [T] Under the curve of \( y=3x,\) \(x=0\), and \( x=3\) rotated around the \(y\)-axis.

**Answer:**-
\(V = 54π\) units

^{3}

3) [T] Over the curve of \( y=3x,\) \(x=0\), and \( y=3\) rotated around the \(x\)-axis.

4) [T] Under the curve of \( y=3x,\) \(x=0,\) and \( x=3\) rotated around the \(x\)-axis.

**Answer:**-
\(V = 81π\) units

^{3}

5) [T] Under the curve of \( y=2x^3,x=0,\) and \( x=2\) rotated around the \(y\)-axis.

6) [T] Under the curve of \( y=2x^3,x=0,\) and \( x=2\) rotated around the \(x\)-axis.

**Answer:**-
\(V = \frac{512π}{7}\) units

^{3}

**For exercises 7 - 16, use shells to find the volumes of the given solids. Note that the rotated regions lie between the curve and the \(x\)-axis and are rotated around the \(y\)-axis.**

7) \( y=1−x^2,\) \(x=0,\) and \( x=1\)

8) \( y=5x^3,\) \(x=0\), and \( x=1\)

**Answer:**- \(V = 2π\) units
^{3}

9) \( y=\dfrac{1}{x},\) \(x=1,\) and \( x=100\)

10) \( y=\sqrt{1−x^2},\) \(x=0\), and \( x=1\)

**Answer:**- \(V= \frac{2π}{3}\) units
^{3}

11) \( y=\dfrac{1}{1+x^2},\) \(x=0\),and \( x=3\)

12) \( y=\sin x^2,x=0\), and \( x=\sqrt{π}\)

**Answer:**- \(V= 2π\) units
^{3}

13) \( y=\dfrac{1}{\sqrt{1−x^2}},\) \(x=0\), and \( x=\frac{1}{2}\)

14) \( y=\sqrt{x},\) \(x=0\), and \( x=1\)

**Answer:**- \(V = \frac{4π}{5}\) units
^{3}

15) \( y=(1+x^2)^3,\) \(x=0\), and \( x=1\)

16) \( y=5x^3−2x^4,\) \(x=0\), and \( x=2\)

**Answer:**- \(V= \frac{64π}{3}\) units
^{3}

**For exercises 17 - 26, use shells to find the volume generated by rotating the regions between the given curve and \( y=0\) around the \(x\)-axis.**

17) \( y=\sqrt{1−x^2},\) \(x=0\), and \( x=1\)

18) \( y=x^2,\) \(x=0\), and \( x=2\)

**Answer:**- \(V = \frac{32π}{5}\) units
^{3}

19) \( y=e^x,\) \(x=0\),and \( x=1\)

20) \( y=\ln(x),\) \(x=1\), and \( x=e\)

**Answer:**- \(V= π(e−2)\) units
^{3}

21) \( x=\dfrac{1}{1+y^2},\) \(y=1\), and \( y=4\)

22) \( x=\dfrac{1+y^2}{y},\) \(y=0\), and \( y=2\)

**Answer:**- \(V= \frac{28π}{3}\) units
^{3}

23) \( x=\cos y,\) \(y=0\), and \( y=π\)

24) \( x=y^3−4y^2,\) \(x=−1\), and \( x=2\)

**Answer:**- \(V= \frac{84π}{5}\) units
^{3}

25) \( x=ye^y,\) \(x=−1\), and \( x=2\)

26) \( x=e^y\cos y,\) \(x=0\), and \( x=π\)

**Answer:**- \(V = e^ππ^2\) units
^{3}

**For exercises 27 - 36, find the volume generated when the region between the curves is rotated around the given axis.**

27) \( y=3−x\), \(y=0\), \(x=0\), and \( x=2\) rotated around the \(y\)-axis.

28) \( y=x^3\), \(y=0\), \(x=0\), and \( y=8\) rotated around the \(y\)-axis.

**Answer:**- \( V=\frac{64π}{5}\) units
^{3}

29) \( y=x^2,\) \(y=x,\) rotated around the \(y\)-axis.

30) \( y=\sqrt{x},\) \(x=0\), and \( x=1\) rotated around the line \( x=2.\)

**Answer:**- \(V=\frac{28π}{15}\) units
^{3}

31) \( y=\dfrac{1}{4−x},\) \(x=1,\) and \( x=2\) rotated around the line \( x=4\).

32) \( y=\sqrt{x}\) and \( y=x^2\) rotated around the \(y\)-axis.

**Answer:**- \(V=\frac{3π}{10}\) units
^{3}

33) \( y=\sqrt{x}\) and \( y=x^2\) rotated around the line \( x=2\).

34) \( x=y^3,\) \(y=\dfrac{1}{x},\) \(x=1\), and \( y=2\) rotated around the \(x\)-axis.

**Answer:**- \( \frac{52π}{5}\) units
^{3}

35) \( x=y^2\) and \( y=x\) rotated around the line \( y=2\).

36) [T] Left of \( x=\sin(πy)\), right of \( y=x\), around the \(y\)-axis.

**Answer:**- \(V \approx 0.9876\) units
^{3}

**For exercises 37 - 44, use technology to graph the region. Determine which method you think would be easiest to use to calculate the volume generated when the function is rotated around the specified axis. Then, use your chosen method to find the volume.**

37) [T] \( y=x^2\) and \( y=4x\) rotated around the \(y\)-axis.

38) [T] \( y=\cos(πx),y=\sin(πx),x=\frac{1}{4}\), and \( x=\frac{5}{4}\) rotated around the \(y\)-axis.

**Answer:**-
\(V = 3\sqrt{2}\) units

^{3}

39) [T] \( y=x^2−2x,x=2,\) and \( x=4\) rotated around the \(y\)-axis.

40) [T] \( y=x^2−2x,x=2,\) and \( x=4\) rotated around the \(x\)-axis.

**Answer:**-
\(V= \frac{496π}{15}\) units

^{3}

41) [T] \( y=3x^3−2,y=x\), and \( x=2\) rotated around the \(x\)-axis.

42) [T] \( y=3x^3−2,y=x\), and \( x=2\) rotated around the \(y\)-axis.

**Answer:**-
\( V = \frac{398π}{15}\) units

^{3}

43) [T] \( x=\sin(πy^2)\) and \( x=\sqrt{2}y\) rotated around the \(x\)-axis.

44) [T] \( x=y^2,x=y^2−2y+1\), and \( x=2\) rotated around the \(y\)-axis.

**Answer:**-
\( V =15.9074\) units

^{3}

**For exercises 45 - 51, use the method of shells to approximate the volumes of some common objects, which are pictured in accompanying figures.**

45) Use the method of shells to find the volume of a sphere of radius \( r\).

46) Use the method of shells to find the volume of a cone with radius \( r\) and height \( h\).

**Answer:**- \(V = \frac{1}{3}πr^2h\) units
^{3}

47) Use the method of shells to find the volume of an ellipse \( (x^2/a^2)+(y^2/b^2)=1\) rotated around the \(x\)-axis.

48) Use the method of shells to find the volume of a cylinder with radius \( r\) and height \( h\).

**Answer:**- \(V= πr^2h\) units
^{3}

49) Use the method of shells to find the volume of the donut created when the circle \( x^2+y^2=4\) is rotated around the line \( x=4\).

50) Consider the region enclosed by the graphs of \( y=f(x),y=1+f(x),x=0,y=0,\) and \( x=a>0\). What is the volume of the solid generated when this region is rotated around the \(y\)-axis? Assume that the function is defined over the interval \( [0,a]\).

**Answer:**- \( V=πa^2\) units
^{3}

51) Consider the function \( y=f(x)\), which decreases from \( f(0)=b\) to \( f(1)=0\). Set up the integrals for determining the volume, using both the shell method and the disk method, of the solid generated when this region, with \( x=0\) and \( y=0\), is rotated around the \(y\)-axis. Prove that both methods approximate the same volume. Which method is easier to apply? (Hint: Since \( f(x)\) is one-to-one, there exists an inverse \( f^{−1}(y)\).)

## 6.4: Arc Length of a Curve and Surface Area

For the following exercises, find the length of the functions over the given interval.

1) \(\displaystyle y=5x\) from \(\displaystyle x=0\) to \(\displaystyle x=2\)

Solution: \(\displaystyle 2\sqrt{26}\)

2) \(\displaystyle y=−\frac{1}{2}x+25\) from \(\displaystyle x=1\) to \(\displaystyle x=4\)

3) \(\displaystyle x=4y\) from \(\displaystyle y=−1\) to \(\displaystyle y=1\)

Solution: \(\displaystyle 2\sqrt{17}\)

4) Pick an arbitrary linear function \(\displaystyle x=g(y)\) over any interval of your choice \(\displaystyle (y_1,y_2).\) Determine the length of the function and then prove the length is correct by using geometry.

5) Find the surface area of the volume generated when the curve \(\displaystyle y=\sqrt{x}\) revolves around the \(\displaystyle x-axis\) from \(\displaystyle (1,1)\) to \(\displaystyle (4,2)\), as seen here.

Solution: \(\displaystyle \frac{π}{6}(17\sqrt{17}−5\sqrt{5})\)

6) Find the surface area of the volume generated when the curve \(\displaystyle y=x^2\) revolves around the \(\displaystyle y-axis\) from \(\displaystyle (1,1)\) to \(\displaystyle (3,9)\).

For the following exercises, find the lengths of the functions of \(\displaystyle x\) over the given interval. If you cannot evaluate the integral exactly, use technology to approximate it.

7) \(\displaystyle y=x^{3/2}\) from \(\displaystyle (0,0)\) to \(\displaystyle (1,1)\)

Solution: \(\displaystyle \frac{13\sqrt{13}−8}{27}\)

8) \(\displaystyle y=x^{2/3}\) from \(\displaystyle (1,1)\) to \(\displaystyle (8,4)\)

9) \(\displaystyle y=\frac{1}{3}(x^2+2)^{3/2}\) from \(\displaystyle x=0\) to \(\displaystyle x=1\)

Solution: \(\displaystyle \frac{4}{3}\)

10) \(\displaystyle y=\frac{1}{3}(x^2−2)^{3/2}\) from \(\displaystyle x=2\) to \(\displaystyle x=4\)

11) [T] \(\displaystyle y=e^x\) on \(\displaystyle x=0\) to \(\displaystyle x=1\)

Solution: \(\displaystyle 2.0035\)

12) \(\displaystyle y=\frac{x^3}{3}+\frac{1}{4x}\) from \(\displaystyle x=1\) to \(\displaystyle x=3\)

13) \(\displaystyle y=\frac{x^4}{4}+\frac{1}{8x^2}\) from \(\displaystyle x=1\) to \(\displaystyle x=2\)

Solution: \(\displaystyle \frac{123}{32}\)

14) \(\displaystyle y=\frac{2x^{3/2}}{3}−\frac{x^{1/2}}{2}\) from \(\displaystyle x=1\) to \(\displaystyle x=4\)

15) \(\displaystyle y=\frac{1}{27}(9x^2+6)^{3/2}\) from \(\displaystyle x=0\) to \(\displaystyle x=2\)

Solution: \(\displaystyle 10\)

16) [T] \(\displaystyle y=sinx\) on \(\displaystyle x=0\) to \(\displaystyle x=π\)

For the following exercises, find the lengths of the functions of \(\displaystyle y\) over the given interval. If you cannot evaluate the integral exactly, use technology to approximate it.

17) \(\displaystyle y=\frac{5−3x}{4}\) from \(\displaystyle y=0\) to \(\displaystyle y=4\)

Solution: \(\displaystyle \frac{20}{3}\)

18) \(\displaystyle x=\frac{1}{2}(e^y+e^{−y})\) from \(\displaystyle y=−1\) to \(\displaystyle y=1\)

19) \(\displaystyle x=5y^{3/2}\) from \(\displaystyle y=0\) to \(\displaystyle y=1\)

Solution: \(\displaystyle \frac{1}{675}(229\sqrt{229}−8)\)

20) [T] \(\displaystyle x=y^2\) from \(\displaystyle y=0\) to \(\displaystyle y=1\)

21) \(\displaystyle x=\sqrt{y}\) from \(\displaystyle y=0\) to \(\displaystyle y=1\)

Solution: \(\displaystyle \frac{1}{8}(4\sqrt{5}+ln(9+4\sqrt{5}))\)

22) \(\displaystyle x=\frac{2}{3}(y^2+1)^{3/2}\) from \(\displaystyle y=1\) to \(\displaystyle y=3\)

23) [T] \(\displaystyle x=tany\) from \(\displaystyle y=0\) to \(\displaystyle y=\frac{3}{4}\)

Solution: \(\displaystyle 1.201\)

24) [T] \(\displaystyle x=cos^2y\) from \(\displaystyle y=−\frac{π}{2}\) to \(\displaystyle y=\frac{π}{2}\)

25) [T] \(\displaystyle x=4^y\) from \(\displaystyle y=0\) to \(\displaystyle y=2\)

Solution: \(\displaystyle 15.2341\)

26) [T] \(\displaystyle x=ln(y)\) on \(\displaystyle y=\frac{1}{e}\) to \(\displaystyle y=e\)

For the following exercises, find the surface area of the volume generated when the following curves revolve around the \(\displaystyle x-axis\). If you cannot evaluate the integral exactly, use your calculator to approximate it.

27) \(\displaystyle y=\sqrt{x}\) from \(\displaystyle x=2\) to \(\displaystyle x=6\)

Solution: \(\displaystyle \frac{49π}{3}\)

28) \(\displaystyle y=x^3\) from \(\displaystyle x=0\) to \(\displaystyle x=1\)

29) \(\displaystyle y=7x\) from \(\displaystyle x=−1\) to \(\displaystyle x=1\)

Solution: \(\displaystyle 70π\sqrt{2}\)

30) [T] \(\displaystyle y=\frac{1}{x^2}\) from \(\displaystyle x=1\) to \(\displaystyle x=3\)

31) \(\displaystyle y=\sqrt{4−x^2}\) from \(\displaystyle x=0\) to \(\displaystyle x=2\)

Solution: \(\displaystyle 8π\)

32) \(\displaystyle y=\sqrt{4−x^2}\) from \(\displaystyle x=−1\) to \(\displaystyle x=1\)

33) \(\displaystyle y=5x\) from \(\displaystyle x=1\) to \(\displaystyle x=5\)

Solution: \(\displaystyle 120π\sqrt{26}\)

34) [T] \(\displaystyle y=tanx\) from \(\displaystyle x=−\frac{π}{4}\) to \(\displaystyle x=\frac{π}{4}\)

For the following exercises, find the surface area of the volume generated when the following curves revolve around the \(\displaystyle y-axis\). If you cannot evaluate the integral exactly, use your calculator to approximate it.

35) \(\displaystyle y=x^2\) from \(\displaystyle x=0\) to \(\displaystyle x=2\)

Solution: \(\displaystyle \frac{π}{6}(17\sqrt{17}−1)\)

36) \(\displaystyle y=\frac{1}{2}x^2+\frac{1}{2}\) from \(\displaystyle x=0\) to \(\displaystyle x=1\)

37) \(\displaystyle y=x+1\) from \(\displaystyle x=0\) to \(\displaystyle x=3\)

Solution: \(\displaystyle 9\sqrt{2}π\)

38) [T] \(\displaystyle y=\frac{1}{x}\) from \(\displaystyle x=\frac{1}{2}\) to \(\displaystyle x=1\)

39) \(\displaystyle y=\sqrt[3]{x}\) from \(\displaystyle x=1\) to \(\displaystyle x=27\)

Solutipm: \(\displaystyle frac{10\sqrt{10}π}{27}(73\sqrt{73}−1)\)

40) [T] \(\displaystyle y=3x^4\) from \(\displaystyle x=0\) to \(\displaystyle x=1\)

41) [T] \(\displaystyle y=\frac{1}{\sqrt{x}}\) from \(\displaystyle x=1\) to \(\displaystyle x=3\)

Solution: \(\displaystyle 25.645\)

42) [T] \(\displaystyle y=cosx\) from \(\displaystyle x=0\) to \(\displaystyle x=\frac{π}{2}\)

43) The base of a lamp is constructed by revolving a quarter circle \(\displaystyle y=\sqrt{2x−x^2}\) around the \(\displaystyle y-axis\) from \(\displaystyle x=1\) to \(\displaystyle x=2\), as seen here. Create an integral for the surface area of this curve and compute it.

Solution: \(\displaystyle 2π\)

44) A light bulb is a sphere with radius \(\displaystyle 1/2\) in. with the bottom sliced off to fit exactly onto a cylinder of radius \(\displaystyle 1/4\) in. and length \(\displaystyle 1/3\) in., as seen here. The sphere is cut off at the bottom to fit exactly onto the cylinder, so the radius of the cut is \(\displaystyle 1/4\) in. Find the surface area (not including the top or bottom of the cylinder).

45) [T] A lampshade is constructed by rotating \(\displaystyle y=1/x\) around the \(\displaystyle x-axis\) from \(\displaystyle y=1\) to \(\displaystyle y=2\), as seen here. Determine how much material you would need to construct this lampshade—that is, the surface area—accurate to four decimal places.

Solution: \(\displaystyle 10.5017\)

46) [T] An anchor drags behind a boat according to the function \(\displaystyle y=24e^{−x/2}−24\), where \(\displaystyle y\) represents the depth beneath the boat and \(\displaystyle x\) is the horizontal distance of the anchor from the back of the boat. If the anchor is \(\displaystyle 23\) ft below the boat, how much rope do you have to pull to reach the anchor? Round your answer to three decimal places.

47) [T] You are building a bridge that will span \(\displaystyle 10\) ft. You intend to add decorative rope in the shape of \(\displaystyle y=5|sin((xπ)/5)|\), where \(\displaystyle x\) is the distance in feet from one end of the bridge. Find out how much rope you need to buy, rounded to the nearest foot.

Solution: \(\displaystyle 23\) ft

For the following exercises, find the exact arc length for the following problems over the given interval.

48) \(\displaystyle y=ln(sinx)\) from \(\displaystyle x=π/4\) to \(\displaystyle x=(3π)/4\). (Hint: Recall trigonometric identities.)

49) Draw graphs of \(\displaystyle y=x^2, y=x^6\), and \(\displaystyle y=x^{10}\). For \(\displaystyle y=x^n\), as \(\displaystyle n\) increases, formulate a prediction on the arc length from \(\displaystyle (0,0)\) to \(\displaystyle (1,1)\). Now, compute the lengths of these three functions and determine whether your prediction is correct.

Solution: \(\displaystyle 2\)

50) Compare the lengths of the parabola \(\displaystyle x=y^2\) and the line \(\displaystyle x=by\) from \(\displaystyle (0,0)\) to \(\displaystyle (b^2,b)\) as \(\displaystyle b\) increases. What do you notice?

51) Solve for the length of \(\displaystyle x=y^2\) from \(\displaystyle (0,0)\) to \(\displaystyle (1,1)\). Show that \(\displaystyle x=(1/2)y^2\) from \(\displaystyle (0,0)\) to \(\displaystyle (2,2)\) is twice as long. Graph both functions and explain why this is so.

Solution: Answers may vary

52) [T] Which is longer between \(\displaystyle (1,1)\) and \(\displaystyle (2,1/2)\): the hyperbola \(\displaystyle y=1/x\) or the graph of \(\displaystyle x+2y=3\)?

53) Explain why the surface area is infinite when \(\displaystyle y=1/x\) is rotated around the \(\displaystyle x-axis\) for \(\displaystyle 1≤x<∞,\) but the volume is finite.

Solution: For more information, look up Gabriel’s Horn.

## 6.5: Physical Applications

For the following exercises, find the work done.

1) Find the work done when a constant force \(\displaystyle F=12\)lb moves a chair from \(\displaystyle x=0.9\) to \(\displaystyle x=1.1\) ft.

2) How much work is done when a person lifts a \(\displaystyle 50\) lb box of comics onto a truck that is \(\displaystyle 3\) ft off the ground?

Solution: \(\displaystyle 150\) ft-lb

3) What is the work done lifting a \(\displaystyle 20\) kg child from the floor to a height of \(\displaystyle 2\) m? (Note that \(\displaystyle 1\) kg equates to \(\displaystyle 9.8\)N)

4) Find the work done when you push a box along the floor \(\displaystyle 2\) m, when you apply a constant force of \(\displaystyle F=100N\).

Solution: \(\displaystyle 200J\)

5) Compute the work done for a force \(\displaystyle F=12/x^2\)N from \(\displaystyle x=1\) to \(\displaystyle x=2\) m.

6) What is the work done moving a particle from \(\displaystyle x=0\) to \(\displaystyle x=1\) m if the force acting on it is \(\displaystyle F=3x^2\)N?

Solution: \(\displaystyle 1\) J

For the following exercises, find the mass of the one-dimensional object.

7) A wire that is \(\displaystyle 2\)ft long (starting at \(\displaystyle x=0\)) and has a density function of \(\displaystyle ρ(x)=x^2+2x\) lb/ft

8) A car antenna that is \(\displaystyle 3\) ft long (starting at \(\displaystyle x=0)\) and has a density function of \(\displaystyle ρ(x)=3x+2\) lb/ft

Solution: \(\displaystyle \frac{39}{2}\)

9) A metal rod that is \(\displaystyle 8\)in. long (starting at \(\displaystyle x=0\)) and has a density function of \(\displaystyle ρ(x)=e^{1/2x}\) lb/in.

10) A pencil that is \(\displaystyle 4\)in. long (starting at \(\displaystyle x=2\)) and has a density function of \(\displaystyle ρ(x)=5/x\) oz/in.

Solution: \(\displaystyle ln(243)\)

11) A ruler that is \(\displaystyle 12\)in. long (starting at \(\displaystyle x=5\)) and has a density function of \(\displaystyle ρ(x)=ln(x)+(1/2)x^2\) oz/in.

**For exercises 12 - 16, find the mass of the two-dimensional object that is centered at the origin.**

12) An oversized hockey puck of radius \(\displaystyle 2\)in. with density function \(\displaystyle ρ(x)=x^3−2x+5\)

Solution: \(\displaystyle \frac{332π}{15}\)

13) A frisbee of radius \(\displaystyle 6\)in. with density function \(\displaystyle ρ(x)=e^{−x}\)

14) A plate of radius \(\displaystyle 10\)in. with density function \(\displaystyle ρ(x)=1+cos(πx)\)

Solution: \(\displaystyle 100π\)

15) A jar lid of radius \(\displaystyle 3\)in. with density function \(\displaystyle ρ(x)=ln(x+1)\)

16) A disk of radius \(\displaystyle 5\)cm with density function \(\displaystyle ρ(x)=\sqrt{3x}\)

Solution: \(\displaystyle 20π\sqrt{15}\)

17) A \(\displaystyle 12\)-in. spring is stretched to \(\displaystyle 15\) in. by a force of \(\displaystyle 75\)lb. What is the spring constant?

18) A spring has a natural length of \(\displaystyle 10\)cm. It takes \(\displaystyle 2\) J to stretch the spring to \(\displaystyle 15\) cm. How much work would it take to stretch the spring from \(\displaystyle 15\) cm to \(\displaystyle 20\) cm?

Solution: \(\displaystyle 6\)J

19) A \(\displaystyle 1\)-m spring requires \(\displaystyle 10\) J to stretch the spring to \(\displaystyle 1.1\) m. How much work would it take to stretch the spring from \(\displaystyle 1\) m to \(\displaystyle 1.2\)m?

20) A spring requires \(\displaystyle 5\)J to stretch the spring from \(\displaystyle 8\) cm to \(\displaystyle 12\) cm, and an additional \(\displaystyle 4\) J to stretch the spring from \(\displaystyle 12\) cm to \(\displaystyle 14\) cm. What is the natural length of the spring?

Solution: \(\displaystyle 5\) cm

21) A shock absorber is compressed 1 in. by a weight of 1 t. What is the spring constant?

22) A force of \(\displaystyle F=20x−x^3\)N stretches a nonlinear spring by \(\displaystyle x\) meters. What work is required to stretch the spring from \(\displaystyle x=0\) to \(\displaystyle x=2\) m?

Solution: \(\displaystyle 36\) J

23) Find the work done by winding up a hanging cable of length \(\displaystyle 100\)ft and weight-density \(\displaystyle 5\)lb/ft.

24) For the cable in the preceding exercise, how much work is done to lift the cable \(\displaystyle 50\)ft?

Solution: \(\displaystyle 18,750\) ft-lb

25) For the cable in the preceding exercise, how much additional work is done by hanging a \(\displaystyle 200\)lb weight at the end of the cable?

26) [T] A pyramid of height \(\displaystyle 500\)ft has a square base \(\displaystyle 800\) ft by \(\displaystyle 800\) ft. Find the area \(\displaystyle A\) at height \(\displaystyle h\). If the rock used to build the pyramid weighs approximately \(\displaystyle w=100lb/ft^3\), how much work did it take to lift all the rock?

Solution: \(\displaystyle \frac{32}{3}×10^9ft-lb\)

27) [T] For the pyramid in the preceding exercise, assume there were \(\displaystyle 1000\) workers each working \(\displaystyle 10\) hours a day, \(\displaystyle 5\) days a week, \(\displaystyle 50\) weeks a year. If the workers, on average, lifted 10 100 lb rocks \(\displaystyle 2\)ft/hr, how long did it take to build the pyramid?

28) [T] The force of gravity on a mass \(\displaystyle m\) is \(\displaystyle F=−((GMm)/x^2)\) newtons. For a rocket of mass \(\displaystyle m=1000kg\), compute the work to lift the rocket from \(\displaystyle x=6400\) to \(\displaystyle x=6500\) km. (Note: \(\displaystyle G=6×10^{−17}N m^2/kg^2\) and \(\displaystyle M=6×10^{24}kg\).)

Solution: \(\displaystyle 8.65×10^5J\)

29) [T] For the rocket in the preceding exercise, find the work to lift the rocket from \(\displaystyle x=6400\) to \(\displaystyle x=∞\).

30) [T] A rectangular dam is \(\displaystyle 40\) ft high and \(\displaystyle 60\) ft wide. Compute the total force \(\displaystyle F\) on the dam when

a. the surface of the water is at the top of the dam and

b. the surface of the water is halfway down the dam.

Solution: \(\displaystyle a. 3,000,000\)lb, \(\displaystyle b. 749,000\)lb

31) [T] Find the work required to pump all the water out of a cylinder that has a circular base of radius \(\displaystyle 5\)ft and height \(\displaystyle 200\) ft. Use the fact that the density of water is \(\displaystyle 62\)lb/ft3.

32) [T] Find the work required to pump all the water out of the cylinder in the preceding exercise if the cylinder is only half full.

Solution: \(\displaystyle 23.25π\) million ft-lb

33) [T] How much work is required to pump out a swimming pool if the area of the base is \(\displaystyle 800\)ft2, the water is \(\displaystyle 4\) ft deep, and the top is \(\displaystyle 1\) ft above the water level? Assume that the density of water is \(\displaystyle 62\)lb/ft3.

34) A cylinder of depth \(\displaystyle H\) and cross-sectional area \(\displaystyle A\) stands full of water at density \(\displaystyle ρ\). Compute the work to pump all the water to the top.

Solution: \(\displaystyle \frac{AρH^2}{2}\)

35) For the cylinder in the preceding exercise, compute the work to pump all the water to the top if the cylinder is only half full.

36) A cone-shaped tank has a cross-sectional area that increases with its depth: \(\displaystyle A=(πr^2h^2)/H^3\). Show that the work to empty it is half the work for a cylinder with the same height and base.

Solution: Answers may vary

## 6.6: Moments and Centers of Mass

For the following exercises, calculate the center of mass for the collection of masses given.

1) \(\displaystyle m_1=2\) at \(\displaystyle x_1=1\) and \(\displaystyle m_2=4\) at \(\displaystyle x_2=2\)

2) \(\displaystyle m_1=1\) at \(\displaystyle x_1=−1\) and \(\displaystyle m_2=3\) at \(\displaystyle x_2=2\)

Solution: \(\displaystyle \frac{5}{4}\)

3) \(\displaystyle m=3\) at \(\displaystyle x=0,1,2,6\)

4) Unit masses at \(\displaystyle (x,y)=(1,0),(0,1),(1,1)\)

Solution: \(\displaystyle (\frac{2}{3},\frac{2}{3})\)

5) \(\displaystyle m_1=1\) at \(\displaystyle (1,0)\) and \(\displaystyle m_2=4\) at \(\displaystyle (0,1)\)

6) \(\displaystyle m_1=1\) at \(\displaystyle (1,0)\) and \(\displaystyle m_2=3\) at \(\displaystyle (2,2)\)

Solution: \(\displaystyle (\frac{7}{4},\frac{3}{2})\)

For the following exercises, compute the center of mass x–.

7) \(\displaystyle ρ=1\) for \(\displaystyle x∈(−1,3)\)

8) \(\displaystyle ρ=x^2\) for \(\displaystyle x∈(0,L)\)

Solution: \(\displaystyle \frac{3L}{4}\)

9) \(\displaystyle ρ=1\) for \(\displaystyle x∈(0,1)\) and \(\displaystyle ρ=2\) for \(\displaystyle x∈(1,2)\)

10) \(\displaystyle ρ=sinx\) for \(\displaystyle x∈(0,π)\)

Solution: \(\displaystyle \frac{π}{2}\)

11) \(\displaystyle ρ=cosx\) for \(\displaystyle x∈(0,\frac{π}{2})\)

12) \(\displaystyle ρ=e^x\) for \(\displaystyle x∈(0,2)\)

Solution: \(\displaystyle \frac{e^2+1}{e^2−1}\)

13) \(\displaystyle ρ=x^3+xe^{−x}\) for \(\displaystyle x∈(0,1)\)

14) \(\displaystyle ρ=xsinx\) for \(\displaystyle x∈(0,π)\)

Solution: \(\displaystyle \frac{π^2−4}{π}\)

15) \(\displaystyle ρ=\sqrt{x}\) for \(\displaystyle x∈(1,4)\)

16) \(\displaystyle ρ=lnx\) for \(\displaystyle x∈(1,e)\)

Solution: \(\displaystyle \frac{1}{4}(1+e^2)\)

For the following exercises, compute the center of mass \(\displaystyle (\bar{x},\bar{y})\). Use symmetry to help locate the center of mass whenever possible.

17) \(\displaystyle ρ=7\) in the square \(\displaystyle 0≤x≤1, 0≤y≤1\)

18) \(\displaystyle ρ=3\) in the triangle with vertices \(\displaystyle (0,0), (a,0)\), and \(\displaystyle (0,b)\)

Solution: \(\displaystyle (\frac{a}{3},\frac{b}{3})\)

19) \(\displaystyle ρ=2\) for the region bounded by \(\displaystyle y=cos(x), y=−cos(x), x=−\frac{π}{2}\), and \(\displaystyle x=\frac{π}{2}\)

For the following exercises, use a calculator to draw the region, then compute the center of mass \(\displaystyle (\bar{x},\bar{y})\). Use symmetry to help locate the center of mass whenever possible.

20) [T] The region bounded by \(\displaystyle y=cos(2x), x=−\frac{π}{4}\), and \(\displaystyle x=\frac{π}{4}\)

Solution: \(\displaystyle (0,\frac{π}{8})\)

21) [T] The region between \(\displaystyle y=2x^2, y=0, x=0,\) and \(\displaystyle x=1\)

22) [T] The region between \(\displaystyle y=\frac{5}{4}x^2\) and \(\displaystyle y=5\)

Solution: \(\displaystyle (0,3)\)

23) [T] Region between \(\displaystyle y=\sqrt{x}, y=ln(x), x=1,\) and \(\displaystyle x=4\)

24) [T] The region bounded by \(\displaystyle y=0, \frac{x^2}{4}+\frac{y^2}{9}=1\)

Solution: \(\displaystyle (0,\frac{4}{π})\)

25) [T] The region bounded by \(\displaystyle y=0, x=0,\) and \(\displaystyle \frac{x^2}{4}+\frac{y^2}{9}=1\)

26) [T] The region bounded by \(\displaystyle y=x^2\) and \(\displaystyle y=x^4\) in the first quadrant

Solution: \(\displaystyle (\frac{5}{8},\frac{1}{3})\)

For the following exercises, use the theorem of Pappus to determine the volume of the shape.

27) Rotating \(\displaystyle y=mx\) around the \(\displaystyle x\)-axis between \(\displaystyle x=0\) and \(\displaystyle x=1\)

28) Rotating \(\displaystyle y=mx\) around the \(\displaystyle y\)-axis between \(\displaystyle x=0\) and \(\displaystyle x=1\)

Solution: \(\displaystyle \frac{mπ}{3}\)

29) A general cone created by rotating a triangle with vertices \(\displaystyle (0,0), (a,0),\) and \(\displaystyle (0,b)\) around the \(\displaystyle y\)-axis. Does your answer agree with the volume of a cone?

30) A general cylinder created by rotating a rectangle with vertices \(\displaystyle (0,0), (a,0),(0,b),\) and \(\displaystyle (a,b)\) around the \(\displaystyle y\) -axis. Does your answer agree with the volume of a cylinder?

Solution: \(\displaystyle πa^2b\)

31) A sphere created by rotating a semicircle with radius \(\displaystyle a\) around the \(\displaystyle y\)-axis. Does your answer agree with the volume of a sphere?

For the following exercises, use a calculator to draw the region enclosed by the curve. Find the area \(\displaystyle M\) and the centroid \(\displaystyle (\bar{x},\bar{y})\) for the given shapes. Use symmetry to help locate the center of mass whenever possible.

32) [T] Quarter-circle: \(\displaystyle y=\sqrt{1−x^2}, y=0\), and \(\displaystyle x=0\)

Solution: \(\displaystyle (\frac{4}{3π},\frac{4}{3π})\)

33) [T] Triangle: \(\displaystyle y=x, y=2−x\), and \(\displaystyle y=0\)

34) [T] Lens: \(\displaystyle y=x^2\) and \(\displaystyle y=x\)

Solution: \(\displaystyle (\frac{1}{2},\frac{2}{5})\)

35) [T] Ring: \(\displaystyle y^2+x^2=1\) and \(\displaystyle y^2+x^2=4\)

36) [T] Half-ring: \(\displaystyle y^2+x^2=1, y^2+x^2=4,\) and \(\displaystyle y=0\)

Solution: \(\displaystyle (0,\frac{28}{9π})\)

37) Find the generalized center of mass in the sliver between \(\displaystyle y=x^a\) and \(\displaystyle y=x^b\) with \(\displaystyle a>b\). Then, use the Pappus theorem to find the volume of the solid generated when revolving around the y-axis.

38) Find the generalized center of mass between \(\displaystyle y=a^2−x^2, x=0\), and \(\displaystyle y=0\). Then, use the Pappus theorem to find the volume of the solid generated when revolving around the y-axis.

Solution: Center of mass: \(\displaystyle (\frac{a}{6},\frac{4a^2}{5}),\) volume: \(\displaystyle \frac{2πa^4}{9}\)

39) Find the generalized center of mass between \(\displaystyle y=bsin(ax), x=0,\) and \(\displaystyle x=\frac{π}{a}.\) Then, use the Pappus theorem to find the volume of the solid generated when revolving around the y-axis.

40) Use the theorem of Pappus to find the volume of a torus (pictured here). Assume that a disk of radius \(\displaystyle a\) is positioned with the left end of the circle at \(\displaystyle x=b, b>0,\) and is rotated around the y-axis.

Solution: Find the center of mass \(\displaystyle (\bar{x},\bar{y})\) for a thin wire along the semicircle \(\displaystyle y=\sqrt{1−x^2}\) with unit mass. (Hint: Use the theorem of Pappus.)

## 6.7: Integrals, Exponential Functions, and Logarithms

For the following exercises, find the derivative \(\displaystyle \frac{dy}{dx}\).

1) \(\displaystyle y=ln(2x)\)

Solution: \(\displaystyle \frac{1}{x}\)

2) \(\displaystyle y=ln(2x+1)\)

3) \(\displaystyle y=\frac{1}{lnx}\)

Solution: \(\displaystyle −\frac{1}{x(lnx)^2}\)

For the following exercises, find the indefinite integral.

4) \(\displaystyle ∫\frac{dt}{3t}\)

5) \(\displaystyle ∫\frac{dx}{1+x}\)

Solution: \(\displaystyle ln(x+1)+C\)

For the following exercises, find the derivative \(\displaystyle dy/dx\). (You can use a calculator to plot the function and the derivative to confirm that it is correct.)

6) [T] \(\displaystyle y=\frac{ln(x)}{x}\)

7) [T] \(\displaystyle y=xln(x)\)

Solution:\(\displaystyle ln(x)+1\)

8) [T] \(\displaystyle y=log_{10}x\)

9) [T] \(\displaystyle y=ln(sinx)\)

Solution: \(\displaystyle cot(x)\)

10) [T] \(\displaystyle y=ln(lnx)\)

11) [T] \(\displaystyle y=7ln(4x)\)

Solution: \(\displaystyle \frac{7}{x}\)

12) [T] \(\displaystyle y=ln((4x)^7)\)

13) [T] \(\displaystyle y=ln(tanx)\)

Solution: \(\displaystyle csc(x)secx\)

14) [T] \(\displaystyle y=ln(tan(3x))\)

15) [T] \(\displaystyle y=ln(cos^2x)\)

Solution: \(\displaystyle −2tanx\)

For the following exercises, find the definite or indefinite integral.

16) \(\displaystyle ∫^1_0\frac{dx}{3+x}\)

17) \(\displaystyle ∫^1_0\frac{dt}{3+2t}\)

Solution: \(\displaystyle \frac{1}{2}ln(\frac{5}{3})\)

18) \(\displaystyle ∫^2_0\frac{xdx}{x^2+1}\)

19) \(\displaystyle ∫^2_0\frac{x^3dx}{x^2+1}\)

Solution: \(\displaystyle 2−\frac{1}{2}ln(5)\)

20) \(\displaystyle ∫^e_2\frac{dx}{xlnx}\)

21) \(\displaystyle ∫^e_2\frac{dx}{(xln(x))^2}\)

Solution: \(\displaystyle \frac{1}{ln(2)}−1\)

22) \(\displaystyle ∫\frac{cosxdx}{sinx}\)

23) \(\displaystyle ∫^{π/4}_0tanxdx\)

Solution: \(\displaystyle \frac{1}{2}ln(2)\)

24) \(\displaystyle ∫cot(3x)dx\)

25) \(\displaystyle ∫\frac{(lnx)^2dx}{x}\)

Solution: \(\displaystyle \frac{1}{3}(lnx)^3\)

For the following exercises, compute \(\displaystyle dy/dx\) by differentiating \(\displaystyle lny\).

26) \(\displaystyle y=\sqrt{x^2+1}\)

27) \(\displaystyle y=\sqrt{x^2+1}\sqrt{x2^−1}\)

Solution: \(\displaystyle \frac{2x^3}{\sqrt{x^2+1}\sqrt{x^2−1}}\)

28) \(\displaystyle y=e^{sinx}\)

29) \(\displaystyle y=x^{−1/x}\)

Solution: \(\displaystyle x^{−2−(1/x)}(lnx−1)\)

30) \(\displaystyle y=e^{(ex)}\)

31) \(\displaystyle y=x^e\)

Solution: \(\displaystyle ex^{e−1}\)

32) \(\displaystyle y=x^{(ex)}\)

33) \(\displaystyle y=\sqrt{x}\sqrt[3]{x}\sqrt[6]{x}\)

Solution: \(\displaystyle 1\)

34) \(\displaystyle y=x^{−1/lnx}\)

35) \(\displaystyle y=e^{−lnx}\)

Solution: \(\displaystyle −\frac{1}{x^2}\)

For the following exercises, evaluate by any method.

36) \(\displaystyle ∫^{10}_5\frac{dt}{t}−∫^{10x}_{5x}\frac{dt}{t}\)

37) \(\displaystyle ∫^{e^π}_1\frac{dx}{x}+∫^{−1}_{−2}\frac{dx}{x}\)

Solution: \(\displaystyle π−ln(2)\)

38) \(\displaystyle \frac{d}{dx}∫^1_x\frac{dt}{t}\)

39) \(\displaystyle \frac{d}{dx}∫^{x^2}_x\frac{dt}{t}\)

Solution: \(\displaystyle \frac{1}{x}\)

40) \(\displaystyle \frac{d}{dx}ln(secx+tanx)\)

For the following exercises, use the function \(\displaystyle lnx\). If you are unable to find intersection points analytically, use a calculator.

41) Find the area of the region enclosed by \(\displaystyle x=1\) and \(\displaystyle y=5\) above \(\displaystyle y=lnx\).

Solution: \(\displaystyle e^5−6units^2\)

42) [T] Find the arc length of \(\displaystyle lnx\) from \(\displaystyle x=1\) to \(\displaystyle x=2\).

43) Find the area between \(\displaystyle lnx\) and the x-axis from \(\displaystyle x=1\) to \(\displaystyle x=2\).

Solution: \(\displaystyle ln(4)−1units^2\)

44) Find the volume of the shape created when rotating this curve from \(\displaystyle x=1\) to \(\displaystyle x=2\) around the x-axis, as pictured here.

45) [T] Find the surface area of the shape created when rotating the curve in the previous exercise from \(\displaystyle x=1\) to \(\displaystyle x=2\) around the x-axis.

Solution: \(\displaystyle 2.8656\)

If you are unable to find intersection points analytically in the following exercises, use a calculator.

46) Find the area of the hyperbolic quarter-circle enclosed by \(\displaystyle x=2\) and \(\displaystyle y=2\) above \(\displaystyle y=1/x.\)

47) [T] Find the arc length of \(\displaystyle y=1/x\) from \(\displaystyle x=1\) to \(\displaystyle x=4\).

Solution: \(\displaystyle 3.1502\)

48) Find the area under \(\displaystyle y=1/x\) and above the x-axis from \(\displaystyle x=1\) to \(\displaystyle x=4\).

For the following exercises, verify the derivatives and antiderivatives.

49) \(\displaystyle \frac{d}{dx}ln(x+\sqrt{x^2+1})=\frac{1}{\sqrt{1+x^2}}\)

50) \(\displaystyle \frac{d}{dx}ln(\frac{x−a}{x+a})=\frac{2a}{(x^2−a^2)}\)

51) \(\displaystyle \frac{d}{dx}ln(\frac{1+\sqrt{1−x^2}}{x})=−\frac{1}{x\sqrt{1−x^2}}\)

52) \(\displaystyle \frac{d}{dx}ln(x+\sqrt{x^2−a^2})=\frac{1}{\sqrt{x^2−a^2}}\)

53) \(\displaystyle ∫\frac{dx}{xln(x)ln(lnx)}=ln(ln(lnx))+C\)

## 6.8: Exponential Growth and Decay

*True or False*? If true, prove it. If false, find the true answer.

1) The doubling time for \(\displaystyle y=e^{ct}\) is \(\displaystyle (ln(2))/(ln(c))\).

2) If you invest \(\displaystyle $500\), an annual rate of interest of \(\displaystyle 3%\) yields more money in the first year than a \(\displaystyle 2.5%\) continuous rate of interest.

Solution: True

3) If you leave a \(\displaystyle 100°C\) pot of tea at room temperature \(\displaystyle (25°C)\) and an identical pot in the refrigerator \(\displaystyle (5°C)\), with \(\displaystyle k=0.02\), the tea in the refrigerator reaches a drinkable temperature \(\displaystyle (70°C)\) more than \(\displaystyle 5\) minutes before the tea at room temperature.

4) If given a half-life of t years, the constant \(\displaystyle k\) for \(\displaystyle y=e^{kt}\) is calculated by \(\displaystyle k=ln(1/2)/t\).

Solution: False; \(\displaystyle k=\frac{ln(2)}{t}\)

For the following exercises, use \(\displaystyle y=y_0e^{kt}.\)

5) If a culture of bacteria doubles in \(\displaystyle 3\) hours, how many hours does it take to multiply by \(\displaystyle 10\)?

6) If bacteria increase by a factor of \(\displaystyle 10\) in \(\displaystyle 10\) hours, how many hours does it take to increase by \(\displaystyle 100\)?

Solution: \(\displaystyle 20\) hours

7) How old is a skull that contains one-fifth as much radiocarbon as a modern skull? Note that the half-life of radiocarbon is \(\displaystyle 5730\) years.

8) If a relic contains \(\displaystyle 90%\) as much radiocarbon as new material, can it have come from the time of Christ (approximately \(\displaystyle 2000\) years ago)? Note that the half-life of radiocarbon is \(\displaystyle 5730\) years.

Solution: No. The relic is approximately \(\displaystyle 871\) years old.

9) The population of Cairo grew from \(\displaystyle 5\) million to \(\displaystyle 10\) million in \(\displaystyle 20\) years. Use an exponential model to find when the population was \(\displaystyle 8\) million.

10) The populations of New York and Los Angeles are growing at \(\displaystyle 1%\) and \(\displaystyle 1.4%\) a year, respectively. Starting from \(\displaystyle 8\) million (New York) and \(\displaystyle 6\) million (Los Angeles), when are the populations equal?

Solution: \(\displaystyle 71.92\) years

11) Suppose the value of \(\displaystyle $1\) in Japanese yen decreases at \(\displaystyle 2%\) per year. Starting from \(\displaystyle $1=¥250\), when will \(\displaystyle $1=¥1\)?

12) The effect of advertising decays exponentially. If \(\displaystyle 40%\) of the population remembers a new product after \(\displaystyle 3\) days, how long will \(\displaystyle 20%\)remember it?

Solution: \(\displaystyle 5\) days \(\displaystyle 6\) hours \(\displaystyle 27\)minutes

13) If \(\displaystyle y=1000\) at \(\displaystyle t=3\) and \(\displaystyle y=3000\) at \(\displaystyle t=4\), what was \(\displaystyle y_0\) at \(\displaystyle t=0\)?

14) If \(\displaystyle y=100\) at \(\displaystyle t=4\) and \(\displaystyle y=10\) at \(\displaystyle t=8\), when does \(\displaystyle y=1\)?

Solution: \(\displaystyle 12\)

15) If a bank offers annual interest of \(\displaystyle 7.5%\) or continuous interest of \(\displaystyle 7.25%,\) which has a better annual yield?

16) What continuous interest rate has the same yield as an annual rate of \(\displaystyle 9%\)?

Solution: \(\displaystyle 8.618%\)

17) If you deposit \(\displaystyle $5000\)at \(\displaystyle 8%\) annual interest, how many years can you withdraw \(\displaystyle $500\) (starting after the first year) without running out of money?

18) You are trying to save \(\displaystyle $50,000\) in \(\displaystyle 20\) years for college tuition for your child. If interest is a continuous \(\displaystyle 10%,\) how much do you need to invest initially?

Solution: $6766.76

19) You are cooling a turkey that was taken out of the oven with an internal temperature of \(\displaystyle 165°F\). After \(\displaystyle 10\) minutes of resting the turkey in a \(\displaystyle 70°F\) apartment, the temperature has reached \(\displaystyle 155°F\). What is the temperature of the turkey \(\displaystyle 20\) minutes after taking it out of the oven?

20) You are trying to thaw some vegetables that are at a temperature of \(\displaystyle 1°F\). To thaw vegetables safely, you must put them in the refrigerator, which has an ambient temperature of \(\displaystyle 44°F\). You check on your vegetables \(\displaystyle 2\) hours after putting them in the refrigerator to find that they are now \(\displaystyle 12°F\). Plot the resulting temperature curve and use it to determine when the vegetables reach \(\displaystyle 33°\).

Solution: \(\displaystyle 9\)hours \(\displaystyle 13\)minutes

21) You are an archaeologist and are given a bone that is claimed to be from a Tyrannosaurus Rex. You know these dinosaurs lived during the Cretaceous Era (\(\displaystyle 146\) million years to \(\displaystyle 65\) million years ago), and you find by radiocarbon dating that there is \(\displaystyle 0.000001%\) the amount of radiocarbon. Is this bone from the Cretaceous?

22) The spent fuel of a nuclear reactor contains plutonium-239, which has a half-life of \(\displaystyle 24,000\)years. If \(\displaystyle 1\) barrel containing \(\displaystyle 10kg\) of plutonium-239 is sealed, how many years must pass until only \(\displaystyle 10g\) of plutonium-239 is left?

Solution: \(\displaystyle 239,179\) years

For the next set of exercises, use the following table, which features the world population by decade.

Years since 1950 |
Population (millions) |

0 | 2,556 |

10 | 3,039 |

20 | 3,706 |

30 | 4,453 |

40 | 5,279 |

50 | 6,083 |

60 | 6,849 |

*Source*: http:/www.factmonster.com/ipka/A0762181.html.

23) [T] The best-fit exponential curve to the data of the form \(\displaystyle P(t)=ae^{bt}\) is given by \(\displaystyle P(t)=2686e^{0.01604t}\). Use a graphing calculator to graph the data and the exponential curve together.

24) [T] Find and graph the derivative \(\displaystyle y′\)of your equation. Where is it increasing and what is the meaning of this increase?

Solution: \(\displaystyle P'(t)=43e^{0.01604t}\). The population is always increasing.

25) [T] Find and graph the second derivative of your equation. Where is it increasing and what is the meaning of this increase?

26) [T] Find the predicted date when the population reaches \(\displaystyle 10\) billion. Using your previous answers about the first and second derivatives, explain why exponential growth is unsuccessful in predicting the future.

Solution: The population reaches \(\displaystyle 10\) billion people in \(\displaystyle 2027\).

For the next set of exercises, use the following table, which shows the population of San Francisco during the 19th century.

Years since 1850 |
Population (thousands) |

0 | 21.00 |

10 | 56.80 |

20 | 149.5 |

30 | 234.0 |

*Source*: http:/www.sfgenealogy.com/sf/history/hgpop.htm.

27) [T] The best-fit exponential curve to the data of the form \(\displaystyle P(t)=ae^{bt}\) is given by \(\displaystyle P(t)=35.26e^{0.06407t}\). Use a graphing calculator to graph the data and the exponential curve together.

28) [T] Find and graph the derivative \(\displaystyle y′\) of your equation. Where is it increasing? What is the meaning of this increase? Is there a value where the increase is maximal?

Solution: \(\displaystyle P'(t)=2.259e^{0.06407t}\). The population is always increasing.

29) [T] Find and graph the second derivative of your equation. Where is it increasing? What is the meaning of this increase?

## 6.9: Calculus of the Hyperbolic Functions

1) [T] Find expressions for \(\cosh x+\sinh x\) and \(\cosh x−\sinh x.\) Use a calculator to graph these functions and ensure your expression is correct.

**Answer:**- \(e^x\) and \(e^{−x}\)

2) From the definitions of \(\cosh(x)\) and \(\sinh(x)\), find their antiderivatives.

3) Show that \(\cosh(x)\) and \(\sinh(x)\) satisfy \( y''=y\).

Solution: Answers may vary

4) Use the quotient rule to verify that \(\frac{d}{dx}\big(\tanh(x)\big)=\text{sech}^2(x).\)

5) Derive \(\cosh^2(x)+\sinh^2(x)=\cosh(2x)\) from the definition.

Solution: Answers may vary

6) Take the derivative of the previous expression to find an expression for \(\sinh(2x)\).

7) Prove \(\sinh(x+y)=\sinh(x)\cosh(y)+\cosh(x)\sinh(y)\) by changing the expression to exponentials.

Solution: Answers may vary

8) Take the derivative of the previous expression to find an expression for \(\cosh(x+y).\)

For the following exercises, find the derivatives of the given functions and graph along with the function to ensure your answer is correct.

9) [T] \(\displaystyle cosh(3x+1)\)

Solution: \(\displaystyle 3sinh(3x+1)\)

10) [T] \(\displaystyle sinh(x^2)\)

11) [T] \(\displaystyle \frac{1}{cosh(x)}\)

Solution: \(\displaystyle −tanh(x)sech(x)\)

12) [T] \(\displaystyle sinh(ln(x))\)

13) [T] \(\displaystyle cosh^2(x)+sinh^2(x)\)

Solution: \(\displaystyle 4cosh(x)sinh(x)\)

14) [T] \(\displaystyle cosh^2(x)−sinh^2(x)\)

15) [T] \(\displaystyle tanh(\sqrt{x^2+1})\)

Solution: \(\displaystyle \frac{xsech^2(\sqrt{x^2+1})}{\sqrt{x^2+1}}\)

16) [T] \(\displaystyle \frac{1+tanh(x)}{1−tanh(x)}\)

17) [T] \(\displaystyle sinh^6(x)\)

Solution: \(\displaystyle 6sinh^5(x)cosh(x)\)

18) [T] \(\displaystyle ln(sech(x)+tanh(x))\)

For the following exercises, find the antiderivatives for the given functions.

19) \(\displaystyle cosh(2x+1)\)

Solution: \(\displaystyle \frac{1}{2}sinh(2x+1)+C\)

20) \(\displaystyle tanh(3x+2)\)

21) \(\displaystyle xcosh(x^2)\)

Solution: \(\displaystyle \frac{1}{2}sinh^2(x^2)+C\)

22) \(\displaystyle 3x^3tanh(x^4)\)

23) \(\displaystyle cosh^2(x)sinh(x)\)

Solution: \(\displaystyle \frac{1}{3}cosh^3(x)+C\)

24) \(\displaystyle tanh^2(x)sech^2(x)\)

25) \(\displaystyle \frac{sinh(x)}{1+cosh(x)}\)

Solution: \(\displaystyle ln(1+cosh(x))+C\)

26) \(\displaystyle coth(x)\)

27) \(\displaystyle cosh(x)+sinh(x)\)

Solution: \(\displaystyle cosh(x)+sinh(x)+C\)

28) \(\displaystyle (cosh(x)+sinh(x))^n\)

For the following exercises, find the derivatives for the functions.

29) \(\displaystyle tanh^{−1}(4x)\)

Solution: \(\displaystyle \frac{4}{1−16x^2}\)

30) \(\displaystyle sinh^{−1}(x^2)\)

31) \(\displaystyle sinh^{−1}(cosh(x))\)

Solution: \(\displaystyle \frac{sinh(x)}{\sqrt{cosh^2(x)+1}}\)

32) \(\displaystyle cosh^{−1}(x^3)\)

33) \(\displaystyle tanh^{−1}(cos(x))\)

Solution: \(\displaystyle −csc(x)\)

34) \(\displaystyle e^{sinh^{−1}(x)}\)

35) \(\displaystyle ln(tanh^{−1}(x))\)

Solution: \(\displaystyle −\frac{1}{(x^2−1)tanh^{−1}(x)}\)

For the following exercises, find the antiderivatives for the functions.

36) \(\displaystyle ∫\frac{dx}{4−x^2}\)

37) \(\displaystyle ∫\frac{dx}{a^2−x^2}\)

Solution: \(\displaystyle \frac{1}{a}tanh^{−1}(\frac{x}{a})+C\)

38) \(\displaystyle ∫\frac{dx}{\sqrt{x^2+1}}\)

39) \(\displaystyle ∫\frac{xdx}{\sqrt{x^2+1}}\)

Solution: \(\displaystyle \sqrt{x^2+1}+C\)

40) \(\displaystyle ∫−\frac{dx}{x\sqrt{1−x^2}}\)

41) \(\displaystyle ∫\frac{e^x}{\sqrt{e^{2x}−1}}\)

Solution: \(\displaystyle cosh^{−1}(e^x)+C\)

42) \(\displaystyle ∫−\frac{2x}{x^4−1}\)

For the following exercises, use the fact that a falling body with friction equal to velocity squared obeys the equation \(\displaystyle dv/dt=g−v^2\).

43) Show that \(\displaystyle v(t)=\sqrt{g}tanh(\sqrt{g}t)\) satisfies this equation.

Solution: Answers may vary

44) Derive the previous expression for \(\displaystyle v(t)\) by integrating \(\displaystyle \frac{dv}{g−v^2}=dt\).

45) [T] Estimate how far a body has fallen in \(\displaystyle 12\)seconds by finding the area underneath the curve of \(\displaystyle v(t)\).

Solution: \(\displaystyle 37.30\)

For the following exercises, use this scenario: A cable hanging under its own weight has a slope \(\displaystyle S=dy/dx\) that satisfies \(\displaystyle dS/dx=c\sqrt{1+S^2}\). The constant \(\displaystyle c\) is the ratio of cable density to tension.

46) Show that \(\displaystyle S=sinh(cx)\) satisfies this equation.

47) Integrate \(\displaystyle dy/dx=sinh(cx)\) to find the cable height \(\displaystyle y(x)\) if \(\displaystyle y(0)=1/c\).

Solution: \(\displaystyle y=\frac{1}{c}cosh(cx)\)

48) Sketch the cable and determine how far down it sags at \(\displaystyle x=0\).

For the following exercises, solve each problem.

49) [T] A chain hangs from two posts \(\displaystyle 2\)m apart to form a catenary described by the equation \(\displaystyle y=2cosh(x/2)−1\). Find the slope of the catenary at the left fence post.

Solution: \(\displaystyle −0.521095\)

50) [T] A chain hangs from two posts four meters apart to form a catenary described by the equation \(\displaystyle y=4cosh(x/4)−3.\) Find the total length of the catenary (arc length).

51) [T] A high-voltage power line is a catenary described by \(\displaystyle y=10cosh(x/10)\). Find the ratio of the area under the catenary to its arc length. What do you notice?

Solution: \(\displaystyle 10\)

52) A telephone line is a catenary described by \(\displaystyle y=acosh(x/a).\) Find the ratio of the area under the catenary to its arc length. Does this confirm your answer for the previous question?

53) Prove the formula for the derivative of \(\displaystyle y=sinh^{−1}(x)\) by differentiating \(\displaystyle x=sinh(y).\)

(Hint: Use hyperbolic trigonometric identities.)

54) Prove the formula for the derivative of \(\displaystyle y=cosh^{−1}(x)\) by differentiating \(\displaystyle x=cosh(y).\)

(Hint: Use hyperbolic trigonometric identities.)

55) Prove the formula for the derivative of \(\displaystyle y=sech^{−1}(x)\) by differentiating \(\displaystyle x=sech(y).\)

(Hint: Use hyperbolic trigonometric identities.)

56) Prove that \(\displaystyle cosh(x)+sinh(x))^n=cosh(nx)+sinh(nx).\)

57) Prove the expression for \(\displaystyle sinh^{−1}(x).\) Multiply \(\displaystyle x=sinh(y)=(1/2)(e^y−e^{−y})\) by \(\displaystyle 2e^y\) and solve for \(\displaystyle y\). Does your expression match the textbook?

58) Prove the expression for \(\displaystyle cosh^{−1}(x).\) Multiply \(\displaystyle x=cosh(y)=(1/2)(e^y−e^{−y})\) by \(\displaystyle 2e^y\) and solve for \(\displaystyle y\). Does your expression match the textbook?

## Chapter Review Exercises

*True or False?* Justify your answer with a proof or a counterexample.

1) The amount of work to pump the water out of a half-full cylinder is half the amount of work to pump the water out of the full cylinder.

Solution: False

2) If the force is constant, the amount of work to move an object from \(\displaystyle x=a\) to \(\displaystyle x=b\) is \(\displaystyle F(b−a)\).

3) The disk method can be used in any situation in which the washer method is successful at finding the volume of a solid of revolution.

Solution: False

4) If the half-life of \(\displaystyle seaborgium-266\) is \(\displaystyle 360\) ms, then \(\displaystyle k=(ln(2))/360.\)

For the following exercises, use the requested method to determine the volume of the solid.

5) The volume that has a base of the ellipse \(\displaystyle x^2/4+y^2/9=1\) and cross-sections of an equilateral triangle perpendicular to the \(\displaystyle y-axis\). Use the method of slicing.

Solution: \(\displaystyle 32\sqrt{3}\)

6) \(\displaystyle y=x^2−x\), from \(\displaystyle x=1\) to \(\displaystyle x=4\), rotated around they-axis using the washer method

7) \(\displaystyle x=y^2\) and \(\displaystyle x=3y\) rotated around the y-axis using the washer method

Solution: \(\displaystyle \frac{162π}{5}\)

8) \(\displaystyle x=2y^2−y^3,x=0\),and \(\displaystyle y=0\) rotated around the x-axis using cylindrical shells

For the following exercises, find

a. the area of the region,

b.the volume of the solid when rotated around the *x*-axis, and

c. the volume of the solid when rotated around the *y*-axis. Use whichever method seems most appropriate to you.

9) \(\displaystyle y=x^3,x=0,y=0\), and \(\displaystyle x=2\)

Solution: \(\displaystyle a. 4, b. \frac{128π}{7}, c. \frac{64π}{5}\)

10) \(\displaystyle y=x^2−x\) and \(\displaystyle x=0\)

11) [T] \(\displaystyle y=ln(x)+2\) and \(\displaystyle y=x\)

Solution: \(\displaystyle a. 1.949, b. 21.952, c. 17.099\)

12) \(\displaystyle y=x^2\) and \(\displaystyle y=\sqrt{x}\)

13) \(\displaystyle y=5+x, y=x^2, x=0\), and \(\displaystyle x=1\)

Solution: \(\displaystyle a. \frac{31}{6},b. \frac{452π}{15}, c. \frac{31π}{6}\)

14) Below \(\displaystyle x^2+y^2=1\) and above \(\displaystyle y=1−x\)

15) Find the mass of \(\displaystyle ρ=e^{−x}\) on a disk centered at the origin with radius \(\displaystyle 4\).

Solution: \(\displaystyle 245.282\)

16) Find the center of mass for \(\displaystyle ρ=tan^2x\) on \(\displaystyle x∈(−\frac{π}{4},\frac{π}{4})\).

17) Find the mass and the center of mass of \(\displaystyle ρ=1\) on the region bounded by \(\displaystyle y=x^5\) and \(\displaystyle y=\sqrt{x}\).

Solution: Mass: \(\displaystyle \frac{1}{2},\) center of mass: \(\displaystyle (\frac{18}{35},\frac{9}{11})\)

For the following exercises, find the requested arc lengths.

18) The length of \(\displaystyle x\) for \(\displaystyle y=cosh(x)\) from \(\displaystyle x=0\) to \(\displaystyle x=2\).

19) The length of \(\displaystyle y\) for \(\displaystyle x=3−\sqrt{y}\) from \(\displaystyle y=0\) to \(\displaystyle y=4\)

Solution: \(\displaystyle \sqrt{17}+\frac{1}{8}ln(33+8\sqrt{17})\)

For the following exercises, find the surface area and volume when the given curves are revolved around the specified axis.

20) The shape created by revolving the region between \(\displaystyle y=4+x, y=3−x, x=0,\) and \(\displaystyle x=2\) rotated around the *y-axis.*

21) The loudspeaker created by revolving \(\displaystyle y=1/x\) from \(\displaystyle x=1\) to \(\displaystyle x=4\) around the *x-axis.*

Solution: Volume: \(\displaystyle \frac{3π}{4},\) surface area: \(\displaystyle π(\sqrt{2}−sinh^{−1}(1)+sinh^{−1}(16)−\frac{\sqrt{257}}{16})\)

For the following exercises, consider the Karun-3 dam in Iran. Its shape can be approximated as an isosceles triangle with height \(\displaystyle 205\) m and width \(\displaystyle 388\) m. Assume the current depth of the water is \(\displaystyle 180\) m. The density of water is \(\displaystyle 1000\) kg/m^{3}.

22) Find the total force on the wall of the dam.

23) You are a crime scene investigator attempting to determine the time of death of a victim. It is noon and \(\displaystyle 45°F\) outside and the temperature of the body is \(\displaystyle 78°F\). You know the cooling constant is \(\displaystyle k=0.00824°F/min\). When did the victim die, assuming that a human’s temperature is \(\displaystyle 98°F\) ?

Solution: 11:02 a.m.

For the following exercise, consider the stock market crash in** 1929** in the United States. The table lists the Dow Jones industrial average per year leading up to the crash.

Yeat after 1920 |
Value ($) |

1 | 63.90 |

3 | 100 |

5 | 110 |

7 | 160 |

9 | 381.17 |

*Source*: http:/stockcharts.com/freecharts/hi...a19201940.html

24) [T] The best-fit exponential curve to these data is given by \(\displaystyle y=40.71+1.224^x\). Why do you think the gains of the market were unsustainable? Use first and second derivatives to help justify your answer. What would this model predict the Dow Jones industrial average to be in **2014 **?

For the following exercises, consider the catenoid, the only solid of revolution that has a minimal surface, or zero mean curvature. A catenoid in nature can be found when stretching soap between two rings.

25) Find the volume of the catenoid \(\displaystyle y=cosh(x)\) from \(\displaystyle x=−1\) to \(\displaystyle x=1\) that is created by rotating this curve around the **x-axis,** as shown here.

Solution: \(\displaystyle π(1+sinh(1)cosh(1))\)

26) Find surface area of the catenoid \(\displaystyle y=cosh(x)\) from \(\displaystyle x=−1\) to \(\displaystyle x=1\) that is created by rotating this curve around the **x-axis.**

## Contributors

Gilbert Strang (MIT) and Edwin “Jed” Herman (Harvey Mudd) with many contributing authors. This content by OpenStax is licensed with a CC-BY-SA-NC 4.0 license. Download for free at http://cnx.org.