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7: Polar and Spherical Coordinate Systems
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- 7.1: Polar Coordinates
- The polar coordinate system is a two-dimensional coordinate system in which each point on a plane is determined by a distance from a reference point and an angle from a reference direction. Integrating in polar coordinates involves adding a surface element to the integrated.
- 7.2: Spherical Coordinates
- The spherical coordinate system is a coordinate system for three-dimensional space where the position of a point is specified by three numbers. Integrating requires a volume element.