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# 3.E: Using graphs to represent social relations (Exercises)

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## Review Questions

1. What are "nodes" and "edges"? In a sociogram, what is used for nodes? for edges?

2. How do valued, binary, and signed graphs correspond to the "nominal" "ordinal" and "interval" levels of measurement?

3. Distinguish between directed relations or ties and "bonded" relations or ties.

4. How does a reciprocated directed relation differ from a "bonded" relation?

5. Give and example of a multi-plex relation. How can multi-plex relations be represented in graphs?

## Application Questions

1. Think of the readings from the first part of the course. Did any studies present graphs? If they did, what kinds of graphs were they (that is, what is the technical description of the kind of graph or matrix). Pick one article and show what a graph of its data would look like.

2. Suppose that I was interested in drawing a graph of which large corporations were networked with one another by having the same persons on their boards of directors. Would it make more sense to use "directed" ties, or "bonded" ties for my graph? Can you think of a kind of relation among large corporations that would be better represented with directed ties?

3. Think of some small group of which you are a member (maybe a club, or a set of friends, or people living in the same apartment complex, etc.). What kinds of relations among them might tell us something about the social structures in this population? Try drawing a graph to represent one of the kinds of relations you chose. Can you extend this graph to also describe a second kind of relation? (e.g. one might start with "who likes whom?" and add "who spends a lot of time with whom?").

4. Make graphs of a "star" network, a "line" and a "circle." Think of real world examples of these kinds of structures where the ties are directed and where they are bonded, or undirected. What does a strict hierarchy look like? What does a population that is segregated into two groups look like?