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Mathematics LibreTexts

8.1.E: Problems on Measurable and Elementary Functions in \((S, \mathcal{M})\)

  • Page ID
    32364
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    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    Fill in all proof details in Corollaries 2 and 3 and Theorems 1 and 2.

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{2}\)

    Show that \(\mathcal{P}^{\prime} \cap P^{\prime \prime}\) is as stated at the end of Definition 2.

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{3}\)

    Given \(A \subseteq S\) and \(f, f_{m}: S \rightarrow\left(T, \rho^{\prime}\right), m=1,2, \ldots,\) let
    \[
    H=A\left(f_{m} \rightarrow f\right)
    \]
    and
    \[
    A_{m n}=A\left(\rho^{\prime}\left(f_{m}, f\right)<\frac{1}{n}\right) .
    \]
    Prove that
    (i) \(H=\bigcap_{n=1}^{\infty} \bigcup_{k=1}^{\infty} \bigcap_{m=k}^{\infty} A_{m n} ;\)
    (ii) \(H \in \mathcal{M}\) if all \(A_{m n}\) are in \(\mathcal{M}\) and \(\mathcal{M}\) is a \(\sigma\)-ring.
    [Hint: \(x \in H\) iff
    \[
    (\forall n)(\exists k)(\forall m \geq k) \quad x \in A_{m n} .
    \]
    Why?]

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{3'}\)

    Do Problem 3 for \(T=E^{*}\) and \(f=\pm \infty\) on \(H\).
    [Hint: If \(\left.f=+\infty, A_{m n}=A\left(f_{m}>n\right) \cdot\right]\)

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{4}\)

    \(\Rightarrow 4\). Let \(f: S \rightarrow T\) be \(\mathcal{M}\)-elementary on \(A,\) with \(\mathcal{M}\) a \(\sigma\) -ring in \(S .\) Show the following.
    (i) \(A(f=a) \in \mathcal{M}, A(f \neq a) \in \mathcal{M}\).
    (ii) If \(T=E^{*},\) then
    \(A(f<a), A(f \geq a), A(f>a),\) and \(A(f \geq a)\)
    are in \(\mathcal{M},\) too.
    (iii) \((\forall B \subseteq T) A \cap f^{-1}[B] \in \mathcal{M}\).
    [Hint: If
    \[
    A=\bigcup_{i-1}^{\infty} A_{i}
    \]
    and \(\left.f=a_{i} \text { on } A_{i}, \text { then } A(f=a) \text { is the countable union of those } A_{i} \text { for which } a_{i}=a .\right]\)

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{5}\)

    Do Problem \(4(\mathrm{i})\) for measurable \(f\).
    [Hint: If \(f=\lim f_{m}\) for elementary maps \(f_{m},\) then
    \[
    H=A(f=a)=A\left(f_{m} \rightarrow a\right) .
    \]
    Express \(H\) as in Problem \(3,\) with
    \[
    A_{m n}=A\left(h_{m}<\frac{1}{n}\right) ,
    \]
    where \(h_{m}=\rho^{\prime}\left(f_{m}, a\right)\) is elementary. (Why?) Then use Problems \(4(\text { ii) and } 3(\text { ii }) .]\)

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{6}\)

    \(\Rightarrow 6\). Given \(f, g: S \rightarrow\left(T, \rho^{\prime}\right),\) let \(h=\rho^{\prime}(f, g),\) i.e.,
    \[
    h(x)=\rho^{\prime}(f(x), g(x)) .
    \]
    Prove that if \(f\) and \(g\) are elementary, simple, or measurable on \(A,\) so is \(h .\)
    [Hint: Argue as in Theorem 1. Use Theorem \(4 \text { in Chapter } 3, §15 .]\)

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{7}\)

    \(\Rightarrow 7\). \(\left. \text { A set }\left.B \subseteq\left(T, \rho^{\prime}\right) \text { is called separable (in } T\right) \text { iff } B \subseteq \overline{D} \text { (closure of } D\right)\) for a countable set \(D \subseteq T\).
    Prove that if \(f: S \rightarrow T\) is \(\mathcal{M}\)-measurable on \(A,\) then \(f[A]\) is separable in \(T .\)
    [Hint: \(f=\lim f_{m}\) for elementary maps \(f_{m} ;\) say,
    \[
    f_{m}=a_{m i} \text { on } A_{m i} \in \mathcal{M}, \quad i=1,2, \ldots
    \]
    Let \(D\) consist of all \(a_{m \mathrm{i}}(m, i=1,2, \ldots) ;\) so \(D\) is countable (why?) and \(D \subseteq T\).
    Verify that
    \[
    (\forall y \in f[A])(\exists x \in A) \quad y=f(x)=\lim f_{m}(x) ,
    \]
    with \(f_{m}(x) \in D .\) Hence
    \[
    (\forall y \in f[A]) \quad y \in \overline{D} ,
    \]
    by Theorem \(3 \text { of Chapter } 3, §16 .]\)

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{8}\)

    \(\Rightarrow 8\). Continuing Problem \(7,\) prove that if \(B \subseteq \overline{D}\) and \(D=\left\{q_{1}, q_{2}, \ldots\right\},\) then
    \[
    (\forall n) \quad B \subseteq \bigcup_{i=1}^{\infty} G_{q_{i}}\left(\frac{1}{n}\right) ,
    \]
    [Hint: If \(p \in B \subseteq \overline{D},\) any \(G_{p}\left(\frac{1}{n}\right)\) contains some \(q_{1} \in D ;\) so
    \[
    \rho^{\prime}\left(p, q_{i}\right)<\frac{1}{n}, \text { or } p \in G_{q_{i}}\left(\frac{1}{n}\right) .
    \]
    Thus
    \[
    \left.(\forall p \in B) \quad p \in \bigcup_{i-1}^{\infty} G_{q_{i}}\left(\frac{1}{n}\right) \cdot\right]
    \]

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{9}\)

    Prove Corollaries 2 and 3 and Theorems 1 and \(2,\) assuming that \(\mathcal{M}\) is a semiring only.

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{10}\)

    Do Problem 4 for \(\mathcal{M}\)-simple maps, assuming that \(\mathcal{M}\) is a ring only.

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