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# 4-4. Graphs of Logarithmic Functions

Graphs of Logarithmic Functions
In this section, you will:
• Identify the domain of a logarithmic function.
• Graph logarithmic functions.

In Graphs of Exponential Functions, we saw how creating a graphical representation of an exponential model gives us another layer of insight for predicting future events. How do logarithmic graphs give us insight into situations? Because every logarithmic function is the inverse function of an exponential function, we can think of every output on a logarithmic graph as the input for the corresponding inverse exponential equation. In other words, logarithms give the cause for an effect.

To illustrate, suppose we invest<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mtext>\$</mtext><mn>2500</mn><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]in an account that offers an annual interest rate of<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mn>5</mn><mi>%</mi><mo>,</mo></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]compounded continuously. We already know that the balance in our account for any year<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>t</mi><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]can be found with the equation<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>A</mi><mo>=</mo><mn>2500</mn><msup/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] e 0.05t .

But what if we wanted to know the year for any balance? We would need to create a corresponding new function by interchanging the input and the output; thus we would need to create a logarithmic model for this situation. By graphing the model, we can see the output (year) for any input (account balance). For instance, what if we wanted to know how many years it would take for our initial investment to double? [link] shows this point on the logarithmic graph.

<figure id="CNX_Precalc_Figure_04_04_001" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; line-height: normal; orphans: auto; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 1; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px;"></figure>

In this section we will discuss the values for which a logarithmic function is defined, and then turn our attention to graphing the family of logarithmic functions.

# Finding the Domain of a Logarithmic Function

Before working with graphs, we will take a look at the domain (the set of input values) for which the logarithmic function is defined.

Recall that the exponential function is defined as<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>y</mi><mo>=</mo><msup/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] b x  for any real number<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>x</mi><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]and constant<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>b</mi><mo>></mo><mn>0</mn><mo>,</mo></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] <math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mi>b</mi><mo>≠</mo><mn>1</mn><mo>,</mo></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] where

• The domain of<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>y</mi><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]is<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] −∞,∞ ).
• The range of<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>y</mi><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]is<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] 0,∞ ).

In the last section we learned that the logarithmic function<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>y</mi><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log b ( x ) is the inverse of the exponential function<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>y</mi><mo>=</mo><msup/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] b x . So, as inverse functions:

• The domain of<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>y</mi><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log b ( x ) is the range of<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>y</mi><mo>=</mo><msup/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] b x : <math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] 0,∞ ).
• The range of<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>y</mi><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log b ( x ) is the domain of<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>y</mi><mo>=</mo><msup/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] b x : <math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] −∞,∞ ).

Transformations of the parent function<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>y</mi><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log b ( x ) behave similarly to those of other functions. Just as with other parent functions, we can apply the four types of transformations—shifts, stretches, compressions, and reflections—to the parent function without loss of shape.

In Graphs of Exponential Functions we saw that certain transformations can change the range of<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>y</mi><mo>=</mo><msup/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] b x . Similarly, applying transformations to the parent function<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>y</mi><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log b ( x ) can change the domain. When finding the domain of a logarithmic function, therefore, it is important to remember that the domain consists only of positive real numbers. That is, the argument of the logarithmic function must be greater than zero.

For example, consider<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log 4 ( 2x−3 ). This function is defined for any values of<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>x</mi><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]such that the argument, in this case<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mn>2</mn><mi>x</mi><mo>−</mo><mn>3</mn><mo>,</mo></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] is greater than zero. To find the domain, we set up an inequality and solve for<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>x</mi><mo>:</mo></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]

<math display="block" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtable columnalign="left"><mtr columnalign="left"><mtd columnalign="left"><mrow><mn>2</mn><mi>x</mi><mo>−</mo><mn>3</mn><mo>></mo><mn>0</mn></mrow></mtd></mtr></mtable></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] Show the argument greater than zero.           2x>3 Add 3.              x>1.5 Divide by 2.

In interval notation, the domain of<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log 4 ( 2x−3 ) is<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] 1.5,∞ ).

Given a logarithmic function, identify the domain.

1. Set up an inequality showing the argument greater than zero.
2. Solve for<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>x</mi><mo>.</mo></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]
3. Write the domain in interval notation.
Identifying the Domain of a Logarithmic Shift

What is the domain of<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log 2 (x+3)?

The logarithmic function is defined only when the input is positive, so this function is defined when<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>x</mi><mo>+</mo><mn>3</mn><mo>></mo><mn>0.</mn><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]Solving this inequality,

<math display="block" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtable columnalign="left"><mtr columnalign="left"><mtd columnalign="left"><mrow><mi>x</mi><mo>+</mo><mn>3</mn><mo>></mo><mn>0</mn></mrow></mtd></mtr></mtable></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] The input must be positive.           x>−3 Subtract 3.

The domain of<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log 2 (x+3) is<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] −3,∞ ).

What is the domain of<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log 5 (x−2)+1?

<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] 2,∞ )

Identifying the Domain of a Logarithmic Shift and Reflection

What is the domain of<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><mi>log</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mn>5</mn><mo>−</mo><mn>2</mn><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>?</mo></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]

The logarithmic function is defined only when the input is positive, so this function is defined when<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mn>5</mn><mo>–</mo><mn>2</mn><mi>x</mi><mo>></mo><mn>0</mn><mo>.</mo><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]Solving this inequality,

<math display="block" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtable columnalign="left"><mtr columnalign="left"><mtd columnalign="left"><mrow><mn>5</mn><mo>−</mo><mn>2</mn><mi>x</mi><mo>></mo><mn>0</mn></mrow></mtd></mtr></mtable></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] The input must be positive.    −2x>−5 Subtract 5.             x< 5 2 Divide by −2 and switch the inequality.

The domain of<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><mi>log</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mn>5</mn><mo>−</mo><mn>2</mn><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]is<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] –∞, 5 2 ).

What is the domain of<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><mi>log</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo>−</mo><mn>5</mn><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>+</mo><mn>2</mn><mo>?</mo></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]

<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] 5,∞ )

# Graphing Logarithmic Functions

Now that we have a feel for the set of values for which a logarithmic function is defined, we move on to graphing logarithmic functions. The family of logarithmic functions includes the parent function<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>y</mi><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log b ( x ) along with all its transformations: shifts, stretches, compressions, and reflections.

We begin with the parent function<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>y</mi><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log b ( x ). Because every logarithmic function of this form is the inverse of an exponential function with the form<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>y</mi><mo>=</mo><msup/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] b x , their graphs will be reflections of each other across the line<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>y</mi><mo>=</mo><mi>x</mi><mo>.</mo><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]To illustrate this, we can observe the relationship between the input and output values of<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>y</mi><mo>=</mo><msup/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] 2 x  and its equivalent<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>x</mi><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log 2 (y) in [link].

 x[/itex] 3[/itex] 2[/itex] 1[/itex] 0[/itex] 1[/itex] 2[/itex] 3[/itex] 2[/itex] x =y 1[/itex] 8 1[/itex] 4 1[/itex] 2 1[/itex] 2[/itex] 4[/itex] 8[/itex] log[/itex] 2 ( y )=x 3[/itex] 2[/itex] 1[/itex] 0[/itex] 1[/itex] 2[/itex] 3[/itex]

Using the inputs and outputs from [link], we can build another table to observe the relationship between points on the graphs of the inverse functions<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msup/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] 2 x  and<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>g</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log 2 (x). See [link].

 f(x)=[/itex] 2 x ([/itex] −3, 1 8 ) ([/itex] −2, 1 4 ) ([/itex] −1, 1 2 ) ([/itex] 0,1 ) ([/itex] 1,2 ) ([/itex] 2,4 ) ([/itex] 3,8 ) g(x)=[/itex] log 2 ( x ) ([/itex] 1 8 ,−3 ) ([/itex] 1 4 ,−2 ) ([/itex] 1 2 ,−1 ) ([/itex] 1,0 ) ([/itex] 2,1 ) ([/itex] 4,2 ) ([/itex] 8,3 )

As we’d expect, the x- and y-coordinates are reversed for the inverse functions. [link] shows the graph of<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]and<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>g</mi><mo>.</mo></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]

<figure class="small" id="CNX_Precalc_Figure_04_04_002"> <figcaption>Notice that the graphs of<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] x )= 2 x  and<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>g</mi><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] x )= log 2 ( x ) are reflections about the line<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>y</mi><mo>=</mo><mi>x</mi><mo>.</mo></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]</figcaption> </figure>

Observe the following from the graph:

• <math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msup/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] 2 x  has a y-intercept at<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mn>0</mn><mo>,</mo><mn>1</mn><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]and<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>g</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log 2 ( x ) has an x- intercept at<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mn>1</mn><mo>,</mo><mn>0</mn><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>.</mo></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]
• The domain of<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msup/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] 2 x , <math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] −∞,∞ ), is the same as the range of<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>g</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log 2 ( x ).
• The range of<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msup/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] 2 x , <math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] 0,∞ ), is the same as the domain of<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>g</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log 2 ( x ).
Characteristics of the Graph of the Parent Function, f(x) = logb(x)

For any real number<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>x</mi><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]and constant<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>b</mi><mo>></mo><mn>0</mn><mo>,</mo></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mi>b</mi><mo>≠</mo><mn>1</mn><mo>,</mo></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] we can see the following characteristics in the graph of<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log b ( x ):

• one-to-one function
• vertical asymptote:<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>x</mi><mo>=</mo><mn>0</mn></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]
• domain:<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mn>0</mn><mo>,</mo><mi>∞</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]
• range:<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] −∞,∞ )
• x-intercept:<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mn>1</mn><mo>,</mo><mn>0</mn><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]and key point <math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>b</mi><mo>,</mo><mn>1</mn><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]
• y-intercept: none
• increasing if<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>b</mi><mo>></mo><mn>1</mn></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]
• decreasing if<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mn>0</mn><mo><</mo><mi>b</mi><mo><</mo><mn>1</mn></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]

<figure id="CNX_Precalc_Figure_04_04_003"></figure>

[link] shows how changing the base<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>b</mi><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]in<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log b ( x ) can affect the graphs. Observe that the graphs compress vertically as the value of the base increases. (Note: recall that the function<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>ln</mi><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] x ) has base<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>e</mi><mo>≈</mo><mtext>2</mtext><mo>.</mo><mtext>718.)</mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]

<figure class="small" id="CNX_Precalc_Figure_04_04_004"> <figcaption>The graphs of three logarithmic functions with different bases, all greater than 1.</figcaption> </figure>

Given a logarithmic function with the form<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log b ( x ), graph the function.

1. Draw and label the vertical asymptote,<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>x</mi><mo>=</mo><mn>0.</mn></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]
2. Plot the x-intercept,<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] 1,0 ).
3. Plot the key point<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] b,1 ).
4. Draw a smooth curve through the points.
5. State the domain,<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] 0,∞ ),the range,<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] −∞,∞ ),and the vertical asymptote,<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>x</mi><mo>=</mo><mn>0.</mn></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]
Graphing a Logarithmic Function with the Form f(x) = logb(x).

Graph<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log 5 ( x ). State the domain, range, and asymptote.

Before graphing, identify the behavior and key points for the graph.

• Since<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>b</mi><mo>=</mo><mn>5</mn><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]is greater than one, we know the function is increasing. The left tail of the graph will approach the vertical asymptote<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>x</mi><mo>=</mo><mn>0</mn><mo>,</mo></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] and the right tail will increase slowly without bound.
• The x-intercept is<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] 1,0 ).
• The key point<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] 5,1 ) is on the graph.
• We draw and label the asymptote, plot and label the points, and draw a smooth curve through the points (see [link]).
<figure class="small" id="CNX_Precalc_Figure_04_04_005"></figure>

The domain is<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] 0,∞ ), the range is<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] −∞,∞ ), and the vertical asymptote is<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>x</mi><mo>=</mo><mn>0.</mn></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]

Graph<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log 1 5 (x). State the domain, range, and asymptote.

The domain is<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] 0,∞ ),the range is<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] −∞,∞ ), and the vertical asymptote is<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>x</mi><mo>=</mo><mn>0.</mn></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]

# Graphing Transformations of Logarithmic Functions

As we mentioned in the beginning of the section, transformations of logarithmic graphs behave similarly to those of other parent functions. We can shift, stretch, compress, and reflect the parent function<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>y</mi><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log b ( x ) without loss of shape.

## Graphing a Horizontal Shift of f(x) = logb(x)

When a constant<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>c</mi><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]is added to the input of the parent function<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><mi>l</mi><mi>o</mi><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] g b (x), the result is a horizontal shift<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>c</mi><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]units in theopposite direction of the sign on<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>c</mi><mo>.</mo><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]To visualize horizontal shifts, we can observe the general graph of the parent function<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log b ( x ) and for<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>c</mi><mo>></mo><mn>0</mn><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]alongside the shift left,<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>g</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log b ( x+c ), and the shift right,<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>h</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log b ( x−c ). See [link].

<figure id="Figure_04_04_007"></figure>
Horizontal Shifts of the Parent Function y = logb(x)

For any constant<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>c</mi><mo>,</mo></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]the function<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log b ( x+c )

• shifts the parent function<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>y</mi><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log b ( x ) left<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>c</mi><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]units if<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>c</mi><mo>></mo><mn>0.</mn></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]
• shifts the parent function<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>y</mi><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log b ( x ) right<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>c</mi><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]units if<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>c</mi><mo><</mo><mn>0.</mn></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]
• has the vertical asymptote<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>x</mi><mo>=</mo><mo>−</mo><mi>c</mi><mo>.</mo></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]
• has domain<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] −c,∞ ).
• has range<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] −∞,∞ ).

Given a logarithmic function with the form<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log b ( x+c ), graph the translation.

1. Identify the horizontal shift:
1. If<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>c</mi><mo>></mo><mn>0</mn><mo>,</mo></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]shift the graph of<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log b ( x ) left<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>c</mi><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]units.
2. If<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>c</mi><mo><</mo><mn>0</mn><mo>,</mo></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]shift the graph of<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log b ( x ) right<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>c</mi><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]units.
2. Draw the vertical asymptote<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>x</mi><mo>=</mo><mo>−</mo><mi>c</mi><mo>.</mo></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]
3. Identify three key points from the parent function. Find new coordinates for the shifted functions by subtracting<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>c</mi><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]from the<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>x</mi><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]coordinate.
4. Label the three points.
5. The Domain is<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] −c,∞ ),the range is<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] −∞,∞ ), and the vertical asymptote is<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>x</mi><mo>=</mo><mo>−</mo><mi>c</mi><mo>.</mo></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]
Graphing a Horizontal Shift of the Parent Function y = logb(x)

Sketch the horizontal shift<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log 3 (x−2) alongside its parent function. Include the key points and asymptotes on the graph. State the domain, range, and asymptote.

Since the function is<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log 3 (x−2), we notice<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>x</mi><mo>+</mo><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] −2 )=x–2.

Thus<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>c</mi><mo>=</mo><mo>−</mo><mn>2</mn><mo>,</mo></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]so<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>c</mi><mo><</mo><mn>0.</mn><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]This means we will shift the function<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log 3 (x) right 2 units.

The vertical asymptote is<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>x</mi><mo>=</mo><mo>−</mo><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mo>−</mo><mn>2</mn><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]or<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>x</mi><mo>=</mo><mn>2.</mn></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]

Consider the three key points from the parent function,<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] 1 3 ,−1 ),<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] 1,0 ),and<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] 3,1 ).

The new coordinates are found by adding 2 to the<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>x</mi><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]coordinates.

Label the points<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] 7 3 ,−1 ),<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] 3,0 ),and<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] 5,1 ).

The domain is<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] 2,∞ ),the range is<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] −∞,∞ ),and the vertical asymptote is<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>x</mi><mo>=</mo><mn>2.</mn></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]

<figure class="small" id="CNX_Precalc_Figure_04_04_008"></figure>

Sketch a graph of<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log 3 (x+4) alongside its parent function. Include the key points and asymptotes on the graph. State the domain, range, and asymptote.

The domain is<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] −4,∞ ),the range<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] −∞,∞ ),and the asymptote<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>x</mi><mo>=</mo><mo>–</mo><mn>4.</mn></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]

## Graphing a Vertical Shift of y = logb(x)

When a constant<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>d</mi><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]is added to the parent function<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log b ( x ),the result is a vertical shift<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>d</mi><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]units in the direction of the sign on<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>d</mi><mo>.</mo><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]To visualize vertical shifts, we can observe the general graph of the parent function<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log b ( x ) alongside the shift up,<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>g</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log b ( x )+d and the shift down,<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>h</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log b ( x )−d.See [link].

<figure id="Figure_04_04_010"></figure>
Vertical Shifts of the Parent Function y = logb(x)

For any constant<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>d</mi><mo>,</mo></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]the function<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log b ( x )+d

• shifts the parent function<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>y</mi><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log b ( x ) up<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>d</mi><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]units if<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>d</mi><mo>></mo><mn>0.</mn></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]
• shifts the parent function<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>y</mi><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log b ( x ) down<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>d</mi><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]units if<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>d</mi><mo><</mo><mn>0.</mn></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]
• has the vertical asymptote<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>x</mi><mo>=</mo><mn>0.</mn></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]
• has domain<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] 0,∞ ).
• has range<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] −∞,∞ ).

Given a logarithmic function with the form<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log b ( x )+d, graph the translation.

1. Identify the vertical shift:
• If<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>d</mi><mo>></mo><mn>0</mn><mo>,</mo></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] shift the graph of<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log b ( x ) up<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>d</mi><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] units.
• If<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>d</mi><mo><</mo><mn>0</mn><mo>,</mo></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] shift the graph of<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log b ( x )down<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>d</mi><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] units.
2. Draw the vertical asymptote<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>x</mi><mo>=</mo><mn>0.</mn></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]
3. Identify three key points from the parent function. Find new coordinates for the shifted functions by adding<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>d</mi><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]to the<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>y</mi><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]coordinate.
4. Label the three points.
5. The domain is<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] 0,∞ ),the range is<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] −∞,∞ ),and the vertical asymptote is<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>x</mi><mo>=</mo><mn>0.</mn></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]
Graphing a Vertical Shift of the Parent Function y = logb(x)

Sketch a graph of<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log 3 (x)−2 alongside its parent function. Include the key points and asymptote on the graph. State the domain, range, and asymptote.

Since the function is<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log 3 (x)−2,we will notice<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>d</mi><mo>=</mo><mo>–</mo><mn>2.</mn><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]Thus<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>d</mi><mo><</mo><mn>0.</mn></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]

This means we will shift the function<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log 3 (x) down 2 units.

The vertical asymptote is<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>x</mi><mo>=</mo><mn>0.</mn></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]

Consider the three key points from the parent function,<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] 1 3 ,−1 ),<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] 1,0 ),and<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] 3,1 ).

The new coordinates are found by subtracting 2 from the y coordinates.

Label the points<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] 1 3 ,−3 ),<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] 1,−2 ), and<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] 3,−1 ).

The domain is<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] 0,∞ ),the range is<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] −∞,∞ ), and the vertical asymptote is<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>x</mi><mo>=</mo><mn>0.</mn></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]

<figure class="small" id="CNX_Precalc_Figure_04_04_011"></figure>

The domain is<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] 0,∞ ),the range is<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] −∞,∞ ),and the vertical asymptote is<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>x</mi><mo>=</mo><mn>0.</mn></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]

Sketch a graph of<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log 2 (x)+2 alongside its parent function. Include the key points and asymptote on the graph. State the domain, range, and asymptote.

The domain is<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] 0,∞ ),the range is<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] −∞,∞ ),and the vertical asymptote is<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>x</mi><mo>=</mo><mn>0.</mn></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]

## Graphing Stretches and Compressions of y = logb(x)

When the parent function<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log b ( x ) is multiplied by a constant<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>a</mi><mo>></mo><mn>0</mn><mo>,</mo></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] the result is a vertical stretch or compression of the original graph. To visualize stretches and compressions, we set<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>a</mi><mo>></mo><mn>1</mn><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]and observe the general graph of the parent function<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log b ( x ) alongside the vertical stretch,<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>g</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><mi>a</mi><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log b ( x ) and the vertical compression,<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>h</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><mfrac/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] 1 a log b ( x ).See [link].

<figure id="Figure_04_04_013"></figure>
Vertical Stretches and Compressions of the Parent Function y = logb(x)

For any constant<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>a</mi><mo>></mo><mn>1</mn><mo>,</mo></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]the function<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><mi>a</mi><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log b ( x )

• stretches the parent function<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>y</mi><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log b ( x ) vertically by a factor of<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>a</mi><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]if<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>a</mi><mo>></mo><mn>1.</mn></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]
• compresses the parent function<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>y</mi><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log b ( x ) vertically by a factor of<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>a</mi><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]if<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mn>0</mn><mo><</mo><mi>a</mi><mo><</mo><mn>1.</mn></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]
• has the vertical asymptote<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>x</mi><mo>=</mo><mn>0.</mn></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]
• has the x-intercept<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] 1,0 ).
• has domain<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] 0,∞ ).
• has range<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] −∞,∞ ).

Given a logarithmic function with the form<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><mi>a</mi><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log b ( x ),<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mi>a</mi><mo>></mo><mn>0</mn><mo>,</mo></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]graph the translation.

1. Identify the vertical stretch or compressions:
• If<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mo>|</mo><mi>a</mi><mo>|</mo><mo>></mo><mn>1</mn><mo>,</mo></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]the graph of<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log b ( x ) is stretched by a factor of<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>a</mi><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]units.
• If<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mo>|</mo><mi>a</mi><mo>|</mo><mo><</mo><mn>1</mn><mo>,</mo></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]the graph of<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log b ( x ) is compressed by a factor of<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>a</mi><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]units.
2. Draw the vertical asymptote<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>x</mi><mo>=</mo><mn>0.</mn></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]
3. Identify three key points from the parent function. Find new coordinates for the shifted functions by multiplying the<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>y</mi><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]coordinates by<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>a</mi><mo>.</mo></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]
4. Label the three points.
5. The domain is<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] 0,∞ ),the range is<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] −∞,∞ ),and the vertical asymptote is<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>x</mi><mo>=</mo><mn>0.</mn></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]
Graphing a Stretch or Compression of the Parent Function y = logb(x)

Sketch a graph of<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><mn>2</mn><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log 4 (x) alongside its parent function. Include the key points and asymptote on the graph. State the domain, range, and asymptote.

Since the function is<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><mn>2</mn><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log 4 (x),we will notice<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>a</mi><mo>=</mo><mn>2.</mn></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]

This means we will stretch the function<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log 4 (x) by a factor of 2.

The vertical asymptote is<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>x</mi><mo>=</mo><mn>0.</mn></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]

Consider the three key points from the parent function,<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] 1 4 ,−1 ),<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] 1,0 ), and<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] 4,1 ).

The new coordinates are found by multiplying the<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>y</mi><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]coordinates by 2.

Label the points<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] 1 4 ,−2 ),<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] 1,0 ) , and<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] 4,2 ).

The domain is<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] 0, ∞ ), the range is<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] −∞,∞ ), and the vertical asymptote is<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>x</mi><mo>=</mo><mn>0.</mn><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]See [link].

<figure class="small" id="CNX_Precalc_Figure_04_04_014"></figure>

The domain is<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] 0,∞ ), the range is<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] −∞,∞ ), and the vertical asymptote is<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>x</mi><mo>=</mo><mn>0.</mn></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]

Sketch a graph of<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><mfrac/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] 1 2   log 4 (x) alongside its parent function. Include the key points and asymptote on the graph. State the domain, range, and asymptote.

The domain is<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] 0,∞ ),the range is<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] −∞,∞ ),and the vertical asymptote is<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>x</mi><mo>=</mo><mn>0.</mn></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]

Combining a Shift and a Stretch

Sketch a graph of<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><mn>5</mn><mi>log</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo>+</mo><mn>2</mn><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>.</mo><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]State the domain, range, and asymptote.

Remember: what happens inside parentheses happens first. First, we move the graph left 2 units, then stretch the function vertically by a factor of 5, as in [link]. The vertical asymptote will be shifted to<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>x</mi><mo>=</mo><mn>−2.</mn><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]The x-intercept will be<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mn>−1,</mn><mn>0</mn><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>.</mo><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]The domain will be<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] −2,∞ ). Two points will help give the shape of the graph:<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mn>−1</mn><mo>,</mo><mn>0</mn><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]and<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mn>8</mn><mo>,</mo><mn>5</mn><mo stretchy="false">).</mo><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]We chose<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>x</mi><mo>=</mo><mn>8</mn><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]as the x-coordinate of one point to graph because when<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>x</mi><mo>=</mo><mn>8,</mn><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>x</mi><mo>+</mo><mn>2</mn><mo>=</mo><mn>10,</mn><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]the base of the common logarithm.

<figure class="small" id="CNX_Precalc_Figure_04_04_016"></figure>

The domain is<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] −2,∞ ),the range is<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] −∞,∞ ),and the vertical asymptote is<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>x</mi><mo>=</mo><mo>−</mo><mn>2.</mn></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]

Sketch a graph of the function<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><mn>3</mn><mi>log</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo>−</mo><mn>2</mn><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>+</mo><mn>1.</mn><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]State the domain, range, and asymptote.

The domain is<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] 2,∞ ),the range is<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] −∞,∞ ),and the vertical asymptote is<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>x</mi><mo>=</mo><mn>2.</mn></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]

## Graphing Reflections of f(x) = logb(x)

When the parent function<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log b ( x ) is multiplied by<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mn>−1</mn><mo>,</mo></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]the result is a reflection about the x-axis. When the input is multiplied by<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mn>−1</mn><mo>,</mo></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]the result is a reflection about the y-axis. To visualize reflections, we restrict<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>b</mi><mo>></mo><mn>1,</mn><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]and observe the general graph of the parent function<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log b ( x ) alongside the reflection about the x-axis,<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>g</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] −log b ( x ) and the reflection about the y-axis,<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>h</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log b ( −x ).

<figure id="Figure_04_04_018"></figure>
Reflections of the Parent Function y = logb(x)

The function<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] −log b ( x )

• reflects the parent function<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>y</mi><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log b ( x ) about the x-axis.
• has domain,<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] 0,∞ ), range,<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] −∞,∞ ), and vertical asymptote,<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>x</mi><mo>=</mo><mn>0</mn><mo>,</mo></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] which are unchanged from the parent function.

The function<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log b ( −x )

• reflects the parent function<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>y</mi><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log b ( x ) about the y-axis.
• has domain<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] −∞,0 ).
• has range,<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] −∞,∞ ), and vertical asymptote,<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>x</mi><mo>=</mo><mn>0</mn><mo>,</mo></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] which are unchanged from the parent function.

Given a logarithmic function with the parent function<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log b ( x ), graph a translation.

<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext>If </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><mo>−</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log b (x) <math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext>If </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log b (−x)
1. Draw the vertical asymptote,<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>x</mi><mo>=</mo><mn>0.</mn></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]
1. Draw the vertical asymptote,<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>x</mi><mo>=</mo><mn>0.</mn></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]
1. Plot the x-intercept,<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] 1,0 ).
1. Plot the x-intercept,<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] 1,0 ).
1. Reflect the graph of the parent function<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log b ( x ) about the x-axis.
1. Reflect the graph of the parent function<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log b ( x ) about the y-axis.
1. Draw a smooth curve through the points.
1. Draw a smooth curve through the points.
1. State the domain,<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] 0,∞ ), the range,<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] −∞,∞ ), and the vertical asymptote<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>x</mi><mo>=</mo><mn>0.</mn></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]
1. State the domain,<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] −∞,0 ), the range,<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] −∞,∞ ), and the vertical asymptote<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>x</mi><mo>=</mo><mn>0.</mn></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]
Graphing a Reflection of a Logarithmic Function

Sketch a graph of<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><mi>log</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mo>−</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]alongside its parent function. Include the key points and asymptote on the graph. State the domain, range, and asymptote.

Before graphing<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><mi>log</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mo>−</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>,</mo></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]identify the behavior and key points for the graph.

• Since<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>b</mi><mo>=</mo><mn>10</mn><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]is greater than one, we know that the parent function is increasing. Since the input value is multiplied by<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mn>−1</mn><mo>,</mo></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mi>f</mi><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]is a reflection of the parent graph about the y-axis. Thus,<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><mi>log</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mo>−</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]will be decreasing as<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>x</mi><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]moves from negative infinity to zero, and the right tail of the graph will approach the vertical asymptote<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>x</mi><mo>=</mo><mn>0.</mn><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]
• The x-intercept is<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] −1,0 ).
• We draw and label the asymptote, plot and label the points, and draw a smooth curve through the points.
<figure class="small" id="CNX_Precalc_Figure_04_04_019"></figure>

The domain is<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] −∞,0 ),the range is<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] −∞,∞ ),and the vertical asymptote is<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>x</mi><mo>=</mo><mn>0.</mn></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]

Graph<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><mo>−</mo><mi>log</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mo>−</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>.</mo><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]State the domain, range, and asymptote.

The domain is<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] −∞,0 ),the range is<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] −∞,∞ ),and the vertical asymptote is<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>x</mi><mo>=</mo><mn>0.</mn></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]

Given a logarithmic equation, use a graphing calculator to approximate solutions.

1. Press [Y=]. Enter the given logarithm equation or equations as Y1= and, if needed, Y2=.
2. Press [GRAPH] to observe the graphs of the curves and use [WINDOW] to find an appropriate view of the graphs, including their point(s) of intersection.
3. To find the value of<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>x</mi><mo>,</mo></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] we compute the point of intersection. Press [2ND] then [CALC]. Select “intersect” and press[ENTER] three times. The point of intersection gives the value of<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>x</mi><mo>,</mo></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]for the point(s) of intersection.
Approximating the Solution of a Logarithmic Equation

Solve<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mn>4</mn><mi>ln</mi><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] x )+1=−2ln( x−1 ) graphically. Round to the nearest thousandth.

Press [Y=] and enter<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mn>4</mn><mi>ln</mi><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] x )+1 next to Y1=. Then enter<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mo>−</mo><mn>2</mn><mi>ln</mi><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] x−1 ) next to Y2=. For a window, use the values 0 to 5 for<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>x</mi><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]and –10 to 10 for<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>y</mi><mo>.</mo><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]Press [GRAPH]. The graphs should intersect somewhere a little to right of<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>x</mi><mo>=</mo><mn>1.</mn></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]

For a better approximation, press [2ND] then [CALC]. Select [5: intersect] and press [ENTER] three times. The x-coordinate of the point of intersection is displayed as 1.3385297. (Your answer may be different if you use a different window or use a different value for Guess?) So, to the nearest thousandth,<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>x</mi><mo>≈</mo><mn>1.339.</mn></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]

Solve<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mn>5</mn><mi>log</mi><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] x+2 )=4−log( x ) graphically. Round to the nearest thousandth.

<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mi>x</mi><mo>≈</mo><mn>3.049</mn></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]

## Summarizing Translations of the Logarithmic Function

Now that we have worked with each type of translation for the logarithmic function, we can summarize each in [link] to arrive at the general equation for translating exponential functions.

Translations of the Parent Function<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>y</mi><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log b ( x )
Translation Form
Shift
• Horizontally<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>c</mi><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]units to the left
• Vertically<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>d</mi><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]units up
<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mi>y</mi><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log b ( x+c )+d
Stretch and Compress
• Stretch if<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>|</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] a |>1
• Compression if<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>|</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] a |<1
<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mi>y</mi><mo>=</mo><mi>a</mi><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log b ( x )
Reflect about the x-axis <math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mi>y</mi><mo>=</mo><mo>−</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log b ( x )
Reflect about the y-axis <math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mi>y</mi><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log b ( −x )
General equation for all translations <math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mi>y</mi><mo>=</mo><mi>a</mi><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log b (x+c)+d
Translations of Logarithmic Functions

All translations of the parent logarithmic function,<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>y</mi><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log b ( x ), have the form

<math display="block" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mo> </mo><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><mi>a</mi><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log b ( x+c )+d

where the parent function,<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>y</mi><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log b ( x ),b>1,is

• shifted vertically up<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>d</mi><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]units.
• shifted horizontally to the left<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>c</mi><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]units.
• stretched vertically by a factor of<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>|</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] a | if<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>|</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] a |>0.
• compressed vertically by a factor of<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>|</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] a | if<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mn>0</mn><mo><</mo><mrow><mo>|</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] a |<1.
• reflected about the x-axis when<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>a</mi><mo><</mo><mn>0.</mn></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]

For<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] x )=log( −x ), the graph of the parent function is reflected about the y-axis.

Finding the Vertical Asymptote of a Logarithm Graph

What is the vertical asymptote of<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><mn>−2</mn><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log 3 (x+4)+5?

The vertical asymptote is at<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>x</mi><mo>=</mo><mo>−</mo><mn>4.</mn></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]

Analysis

The coefficient, the base, and the upward translation do not affect the asymptote. The shift of the curve 4 units to the left shifts the vertical asymptote to<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>x</mi><mo>=</mo><mn>−4.</mn></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]

What is the vertical asymptote of<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><mn>3</mn><mo>+</mo><mi>ln</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo>−</mo><mn>1</mn><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>?</mo></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]

<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mi>x</mi><mo>=</mo><mn>1</mn></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]

Finding the Equation from a Graph

Find a possible equation for the common logarithmic function graphed in [link].

<figure class="small" id="CNX_Precalc_Figure_04_04_021"></figure>

This graph has a vertical asymptote at<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>x</mi><mo>=</mo><mn>–2</mn><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]and has been vertically reflected. We do not know yet the vertical shift or the vertical stretch. We know so far that the equation will have form:

<math display="block" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><mo>−</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>log</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo>+</mo><mn>2</mn><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>+</mo><mi>k</mi></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]

It appears the graph passes through the points<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] –1,1 ) and<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] 2,–1 ). Substituting<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] –1,1 ),

<math display="block" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtable columnalign="left"><mtr columnalign="left"><mtd columnalign="left"><mrow><mn>1</mn><mo>=</mo><mo>−</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>log</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mn>−1</mn><mo>+</mo><mn>2</mn><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>+</mo><mi>k</mi><mtext> </mtext><mtext> </mtext><mtext> </mtext><mtext> </mtext><mtext> </mtext><mtext> </mtext><mtext> </mtext><mtext> </mtext><mtext> </mtext><mtext> </mtext><mtext> </mtext><mtext> </mtext></mrow></mtd></mtr></mtable></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] Substitute (−1,1). 1=−alog(1)+k Arithmetic. 1=k log(1)=0.

Next, substituting in<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] 2,–1 ),

<math display="block" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtable columnalign="left"><mtr columnalign="left"><mtd columnalign="left"><mrow><mo>−</mo><mn>1</mn><mo>=</mo><mo>−</mo><mi>a</mi><mi>log</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mn>2</mn><mo>+</mo><mn>2</mn><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>+</mo><mn>1</mn></mrow></mtd></mtr></mtable></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] Plug in (2,−1). −2=−alog(4) Arithmetic.   a= 2 log(4) Solve for a.

This gives us the equation<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><mo>–</mo><mfrac/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] 2 log(4) log(x+2)+1.

Analysis

We can verify this answer by comparing the function values in [link] with the points on the graph in [link].

 x[/itex] −1 0 1 2 3 f(x)[/itex] 1 0 −0.58496 −1 −1.3219 x[/itex] 4 5 6 7 8 f(x)[/itex] −1.5850 −1.8074 −2 −2.1699 −2.3219

Give the equation of the natural logarithm graphed in [link].

<figure class="small" id="CNX_Precalc_Figure_04_04_022"></figure>

<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><mn>2</mn><mi>ln</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo>+</mo><mn>3</mn><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>−</mo><mn>1</mn></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]

Is it possible to tell the domain and range and describe the end behavior of a function just by looking at the graph?

Yes, if we know the function is a general logarithmic function. For example, look at the graph in [link]. The graph approaches<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>x</mi><mo>=</mo><mn>−3</mn><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex](or thereabouts) more and more closely, so<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>x</mi><mo>=</mo><mn>−3</mn><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]is, or is very close to, the vertical asymptote. It approaches from the right, so the domain is all points to the right,<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mo>{</mo><mi>x</mi><mtext> </mtext><mo>|</mo><mtext> </mtext><mi>x</mi><mo>></mo><mn>−3</mn><mo>}</mo><mo>.</mo><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]The range, as with all general logarithmic functions, is all real numbers. And we can see the end behavior because the graph goes down as it goes left and up as it goes right. The end behavior is that as<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">→</mo><mo>−</mo><msup/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] 3 + ,f(x)→−∞ and as<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">→</mo><mi>∞</mi><mo>,</mo><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">→</mo><mi>∞</mi><mo>.</mo></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]

Access these online resources for additional instruction and practice with graphing logarithms.

# Key Equations

 General Form for the Translation of the Parent Logarithmic Function f(x)=[/itex] log b ( x )  f(x)=a[/itex] log b ( x+c )+d

# Key Concepts

• To find the domain of a logarithmic function, set up an inequality showing the argument greater than zero, and solve for<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>x</mi><mo>.</mo><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]See [link] and [link]
• The graph of the parent function<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log b ( x ) has an x-intercept at<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] 1,0 ),domain<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] 0,∞ ),range<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] −∞,∞ ),vertical asymptote<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>x</mi><mo>=</mo><mn>0</mn><mo>,</mo></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]and
• if<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>b</mi><mo>></mo><mn>1</mn><mo>,</mo></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]the function is increasing.
• if<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mn>0</mn><mo><</mo><mi>b</mi><mo><</mo><mn>1</mn><mo>,</mo></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] the function is decreasing.
• The equation<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log b ( x+c ) shifts the parent function<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>y</mi><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log b ( x ) horizontally
• left<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>c</mi><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]units if<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>c</mi><mo>></mo><mn>0.</mn></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]
• right<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>c</mi><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]units if<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>c</mi><mo><</mo><mn>0.</mn></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]
• The equation<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log b ( x )+d shifts the parent function<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>y</mi><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log b ( x ) vertically
• up<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>d</mi><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]units if<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>d</mi><mo>></mo><mn>0.</mn></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]
• down<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>d</mi><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]units if<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>d</mi><mo><</mo><mn>0.</mn></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]
• For any constant<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>a</mi><mo>></mo><mn>0</mn><mo>,</mo></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] the equation<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><mi>a</mi><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log b ( x )
• stretches the parent function<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>y</mi><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log b ( x ) vertically by a factor of<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>a</mi><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]if<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mo>|</mo><mi>a</mi><mo>|</mo><mo>></mo><mn>1.</mn></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]
• compresses the parent function<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>y</mi><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log b ( x ) vertically by a factor of<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>a</mi><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]if<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mo>|</mo><mi>a</mi><mo>|</mo><mo><</mo><mn>1.</mn></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]
• When the parent function<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>y</mi><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log b ( x ) is multiplied by<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mo>−</mo><mn>1</mn><mo>,</mo></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] the result is a reflection about the x-axis. When the input is multiplied by<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mo>−</mo><mn>1</mn><mo>,</mo></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] the result is a reflection about the y-axis.
• The equation<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><mo>−</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log b ( x ) represents a reflection of the parent function about the x-axis.
• The equation<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log b ( −x ) represents a reflection of the parent function about the y-axis.
• A graphing calculator may be used to approximate solutions to some logarithmic equations See [link].
• All translations of the logarithmic function can be summarized by the general equation<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mo> </mo><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><mi>a</mi><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log b ( x+c )+d. See[link].
• Given an equation with the general form<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mo> </mo><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><mi>a</mi><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log b ( x+c )+d,we can identify the vertical asymptote<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>x</mi><mo>=</mo><mo>−</mo><mi>c</mi><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]for the transformation. See [link].
• Using the general equation<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><mi>a</mi><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log b ( x+c )+d,we can write the equation of a logarithmic function given its graph. See [link].

# Section Exercises

## Verbal

The inverse of every logarithmic function is an exponential function and vice-versa. What does this tell us about the relationship between the coordinates of the points on the graphs of each?

Since the functions are inverses, their graphs are mirror images about the line<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>y</mi><mo>=</mo><mi>x</mi><mo>.</mo><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]So for every point<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>a</mi><mo>,</mo><mi>b</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]on the graph of a logarithmic function, there is a corresponding point<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>b</mi><mo>,</mo><mi>a</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]on the graph of its inverse exponential function.

What type(s) of translation(s), if any, affect the range of a logarithmic function?

What type(s) of translation(s), if any, affect the domain of a logarithmic function?

Shifting the function right or left and reflecting the function about the y-axis will affect its domain.

Consider the general logarithmic function<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log b ( x ). Why can’t<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>x</mi><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]be zero?

Does the graph of a general logarithmic function have a horizontal asymptote? Explain.

No. A horizontal asymptote would suggest a limit on the range, and the range of any logarithmic function in general form is all real numbers.

## Algebraic

For the following exercises, state the domain and range of the function.

<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log 3 ( x+4 )

<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mi>h</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><mi>ln</mi><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] 1 2 −x )

Domain:<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] −∞, 1 2 ); Range:<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] −∞,∞ )

<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mi>g</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log 5 ( 2x+9 )−2

<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mi>h</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><mi>ln</mi><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] 4x+17 )−5

Domain:<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] − 17 4 ,∞ ); Range:<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] −∞,∞ )

<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log 2 ( 12−3x )−3

For the following exercises, state the domain and the vertical asymptote of the function.

<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log b (x−5)

Domain:<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] 5,∞ ); Vertical asymptote:<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>x</mi><mo>=</mo><mn>5</mn></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]

<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>g</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><mi>ln</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mn>3</mn><mo>−</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]

<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><mi>log</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mn>3</mn><mi>x</mi><mo>+</mo><mn>1</mn><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]

Domain:<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] − 1 3 ,∞ ); Vertical asymptote:<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>x</mi><mo>=</mo><mo>−</mo><mfrac/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] 1 3

<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><mn>3</mn><mi>log</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mo>−</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>+</mo><mn>2</mn></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]

<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>g</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><mo>−</mo><mi>ln</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mn>3</mn><mi>x</mi><mo>+</mo><mn>9</mn><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>−</mo><mn>7</mn></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]

Domain:<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] −3,∞ ); Vertical asymptote:<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>x</mi><mo>=</mo><mo>−</mo><mn>3</mn></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]

For the following exercises, state the domain, vertical asymptote, and end behavior of the function.

<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><mi>ln</mi><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] 2−x )

<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><mi>log</mi><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] x− 3 7 )

Domain: <math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] 3 7 , ∞ );

Vertical asymptote: <math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mi>x</mi><mo>=</mo><mfrac/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] 3 7; End behavior: as <math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">→</mo><msup/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] ( 3 7 ) + ,f(x)→−∞ and as <math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">→</mo><mi>∞</mi><mo>,</mo><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">→</mo><mi>∞</mi></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]

<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mi>h</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><mo>−</mo><mi>log</mi><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] 3x−4 )+3

<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mi>g</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><mi>ln</mi><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] 2x+6 )−5

Domain: <math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] −3,∞ ); Vertical asymptote: <math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mi>x</mi><mo>=</mo><mo>−</mo><mn>3</mn></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex];

End behavior: as <math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">→</mo><mo>−</mo><msup/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] 3 +, <math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">→</mo><mo>−</mo><mi>∞</mi></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] and as <math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">→</mo><mi>∞</mi></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex], <math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo stretchy="false">→</mo><mi>∞</mi></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]

<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log 3 ( 15−5x )+6

For the following exercises, state the domain, range, and x- and y-intercepts, if they exist. If they do not exist, write DNE.

<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mi>h</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log 4 ( x−1 )+1

Domain:<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] 1,∞ ); Range:<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] −∞,∞ ); Vertical asymptote:<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>x</mi><mo>=</mo><mn>1</mn><mo>;</mo><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]x-intercept:<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] 5 4 ,0 ); y-intercept: DNE

<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><mi>log</mi><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] 5x+10 )+3

<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mi>g</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><mi>ln</mi><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] −x )−2

Domain:<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] −∞,0 ); Range:<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] −∞,∞ ); Vertical asymptote:<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>x</mi><mo>=</mo><mn>0</mn><mo>;</mo><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]x-intercept:<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] − e 2 ,0 ); y-intercept: DNE

<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log 2 ( x+2 )−5

<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mi>h</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><mn>3</mn><mi>ln</mi><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] x )−9

Domain:<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] 0,∞ ); Range:<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] −∞,∞ );  Vertical asymptote: <math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>x</mi><mo>=</mo><mn>0</mn><mo>;</mo><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]x-intercept:<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] e 3 ,0 ); y-intercept: DNE

## Graphical

For the following exercises, match each function in [link] with the letter corresponding to its graph.

<figure class="small" id="CNX_Precalc_Figure_04_04_201"></figure>

<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mi>d</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><mi>log</mi><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] x )

<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><mi>ln</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]

B

<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mi>g</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log 2 ( x )

<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mi>h</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log 5 ( x )

C

<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mi>j</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log 25 ( x )

For the following exercises, match each function in [link] with the letter corresponding to its graph.

<figure class="small" id="CNX_Precalc_Figure_04_04_202"></figure>

<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log 1 3 ( x )

B

<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mi>g</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log 2 ( x )

<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mi>h</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log 3 4 ( x )

C

For the following exercises, sketch the graphs of each pair of functions on the same axis.

<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><mi>log</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]and<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>g</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msup/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] 10 x

<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><mi>log</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]and<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>g</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log 1 2 (x)

<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log 4 (x) and<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>g</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><mi>ln</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]

<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msup/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] e x  and<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>g</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><mi>ln</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]

For the following exercises, match each function in [link] with the letter corresponding to its graph.

<figure class="small" id="CNX_Precalc_Figure_04_04_207"></figure>

<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log 4 ( −x+2 )

<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mi>g</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><mo>−</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log 4 ( x+2 )

C

<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mi>h</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log 4 ( x+2 )

For the following exercises, sketch the graph of the indicated function.

<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log 2 (x+2)

<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><mn>2</mn><mi>log</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]

<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><mi>ln</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mo>−</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]

<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mi>g</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><mi>log</mi><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] 4x+16 )+4

<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mi>g</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><mi>log</mi><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] 6−3x )+1

<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mi>h</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><mo>−</mo><mfrac/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] 1 2 ln( x+1 )−3

For the following exercises, write a logarithmic equation corresponding to the graph shown.

Use<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>y</mi><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log 2 (x) as the parent function.

<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log 2 (−(x−1))

Use<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log 3 (x) as the parent function.

Use<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log 4 (x) as the parent function.

<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><mn>3</mn><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log 4 (x+2)

Use<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log 5 (x) as the parent function.

## Technology

For the following exercises, use a graphing calculator to find approximate solutions to each equation.

<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mi>log</mi><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] x−1 )+2=ln( x−1 )+2

<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mi>x</mi><mo>=</mo><mn>2</mn></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]

<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mi>log</mi><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] 2x−3 )+2=−log( 2x−3 )+5

<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mi>ln</mi><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] x−2 )=−ln( x+1 )

<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mi>x</mi><mo>≈</mo><mtext>2</mtext><mtext>.303</mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]

<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mn>2</mn><mi>ln</mi><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] 5x+1 )= 1 2 ln( −5x )+1

<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mfrac><mn>1</mn></mfrac></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] 3 log( 1−x )=log( x+1 )+ 1 3

<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mi>x</mi><mo>≈</mo><mo>−</mo><mn>0.472</mn></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]

## Extensions

Let<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>b</mi><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]be any positive real number such that<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>b</mi><mo>≠</mo><mn>1.</mn><mtext> </mtext></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]What must<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log b 1 be equal to? Verify the result.

Explore and discuss the graphs of<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log 1 2 ( x ) and<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>g</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><mo>−</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log 2 ( x ). Make a conjecture based on the result.

The graphs of<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log 1 2 ( x ) and<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>g</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><mo>−</mo><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log 2 ( x ) appear to be the same; Conjecture: for any positive base<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>b</mi><mo>≠</mo><mn>1</mn><mo>,</mo></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex]<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><msub/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] log b ( x )=− log 1 b ( x ).

Prove the conjecture made in the previous exercise.

What is the domain of the function<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><mi>ln</mi><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] x+2 x−4 )? Discuss the result.

Recall that the argument of a logarithmic function must be positive, so we determine where<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mfrac/></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] x+2 x−4 >0 . From the graph of the function<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] x )= x+2 x−4 , note that the graph lies above the x-axis on the interval<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] −∞,−2 ) and again to the right of the vertical asymptote, that is<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] 4,∞ ). Therefore, the domain is<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] −∞,−2 )∪( 4,∞ ).

Use properties of exponents to find the x-intercepts of the function<math display="inline" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Content"><mrow><mtext> </mtext><mi>f</mi><mo stretchy="false">(</mo><mi>x</mi><mo stretchy="false">)</mo><mo>=</mo><mi>log</mi><mrow><mo>(</mo></mrow></mrow></annotation-xml></semantics>[/itex] x 2 +4x+4 ) algebraically. Show the steps for solving, and then verify the result by graphing the function.