Skip to main content
\(\newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\) \( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\) \( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\) \( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}\) \( \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\)
Mathematics LibreTexts

1.5: Properties of Real Numbers

  • Page ID
    5121
  • \( \newcommand{\vecs}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}} } \)

    \( \newcommand{\vecd}[1]{\overset{-\!-\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash {#1}}} \)

    Summary

    By the end of this section, you will be able to:

    • Use the commutative and associative properties
    • Use the properties of identity, inverse, and zero
    • Simplify expressions using the Distributive Property

    A more thorough introduction to the topics covered in this section can be found in the Elementary Algebra chapter, Foundations.

    Use the Commutative and Associative Properties

    The order we add two numbers doesn’t affect the result. If we add \(8+9\) or \(9+8\), the results are the same—they both equal 17. So, \(8+9=9+8\). The order in which we add does not matter!

    Similarly, when multiplying two numbers, the order does not affect the result. If we multiply \(9·8\) or \(8·9\) the results are the same—they both equal 72. So, \(9·8=8·9\). The order in which we multiply does not matter! These examples illustrate the Commutative Property.

    COMMUTATIVE PROPERTY

    \[\begin{array}{lll} \textbf{of Addition} & \text{If }a \text{ and }b \text{are real numbers, then} & a+b=b+a. \\ \textbf{of Multiplication} & \text{If }a \text{ and }b \text{are real numbers, then} & a·b=b·a. \end{array} \]

    When adding or multiplying, changing the order gives the same result.

    The Commutative Property has to do with order. We subtract \(9−8\) and \(8−9\), and see that \(9−8\neq 8−9\). Since changing the order of the subtraction does not give the same result, we know that subtraction is not commutative.

    Division is not commutative either. Since \(12÷3\neq 3÷12\), changing the order of the division did not give the same result. The commutative properties apply only to addition and multiplication!

    Addition and multiplication are commutative.

    Subtraction and division are not commutative.

    When adding three numbers, changing the grouping of the numbers gives the same result. For example,\((7+8)+2=7+(8+2)\), since each side of the equation equals 17.

    This is true for multiplication, too. For example, \((5·\frac{1}{3})·3=5·(\frac{1}{3}·3)\), since each side of the equation equals 5.

    These examples illustrate the Associative Property.

    ASSOCIATIVE PROPERTY

    \[\begin{array}{lll} \textbf{of Addition} & \text{If }a,b, \text{ and }c \text{ are real numbers, then} & (a+b)+c=a+(b+c). \\ \textbf{of Multiplication} & \text{If }a,b,\text{ and }c \text{ are real numbers, then} & (a·b)·c=a·(b·c). \end{array} \]

    When adding or multiplying, changing the grouping gives the same result.

    The Associative Property has to do with grouping. If we change how the numbers are grouped, the result will be the same. Notice it is the same three numbers in the same order—the only difference is the grouping.

    We saw that subtraction and division were not commutative. They are not associative either.

    \[\begin{array}{cc} (10−3)−2\neq 10−(3−2) & (24÷4)÷2\neq 24÷(4÷2) \\ 7−2\neq 10−1 & 6÷2\neq 24÷2 \\ 5\neq 9 & 3\neq 12 \end{array}\]

    When simplifying an expression, it is always a good idea to plan what the steps will be. In order to combine like terms in the next example, we will use the Commutative Property of addition to write the like terms together.

    Example \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    Simplify: \(18p+6q+15p+5q\).

    Answer

    \[\begin{array}{lc} \text{} & 18p+6q+15p+5q \\ \text{Use the Commutative Property of addition to} & 18p+15p+6q+5q \\ \text{reorder so that like terms are together.} & {} \\ \text{Add like terms.} & 33p+11q \end{array}\]

    Example \(\PageIndex{2}\)

    Simplify: \(23r+14s+9r+15s\).

    Answer

    \(32r+29s\)

    Example \(\PageIndex{3}\)

    Simplify: \(37m+21n+4m−15n\).

    Answer

    \(41m+6n\)

    When we have to simplify algebraic expressions, we can often make the work easier by applying the Commutative Property or Associative Property first.

    EXAMPLE \(\PageIndex{4}\)

    Simplify: \((\frac{5}{13}+\frac{3}{4})+\frac{1}{4}\).

    Answer

    \( \begin{array}{lc} \text{} & (\frac{5}{13}+\frac{3}{4})+\frac{1}{4} \\ {\text{Notice that the last 2 terms have a common} \\ \text{denominator, so change the grouping.} } & \frac{5}{13}+(\frac{3}{4}+\frac{1}{4}) \\ \text{Add in parentheses first.} & \frac{5}{13}+(\frac{4}{4}) \\ \text{Simplify the fraction.} & \frac{5}{13}+1 \\ \text{Add.} & 1\frac{5}{13} \\ \text{Convert to an improper fraction.} & \frac{18}{13} \end{array}\)

    EXAMPLE \(\PageIndex{5}\)

    Simplify: \((\frac{7}{15}+\frac{5}{8})+\frac{3}{8}.\)

    Answer

    \(1 \frac{7}{15}\)

    EXAMPLE \(\PageIndex{6}\)

    Simplify: \((\frac{2}{9}+\frac{7}{12})+\frac{5}{12}\).

    Answer

    \(1\frac{2}{9}\)

    Use the Properties of Identity, Inverse, and Zero

    What happens when we add 0 to any number? Adding 0 doesn’t change the value. For this reason, we call 0 the additive identity. The Identity Property of Addition that states that for any real number \(a,a+0=a\) and \(0+a=a.\)

    What happens when we multiply any number by one? Multiplying by 1 doesn’t change the value. So we call 1 the multiplicative identity. The Identity Property of Multiplication that states that for any real number \(a,a·1=a\) and \(1⋅a=a.\)

    We summarize the Identity Properties here.

    IDENTITY PROPERTY

    \[\begin{array}{ll} \textbf{of Addition} \text{ For any real number }a:a+0=a & 0+a=a \\ \\ \\ \textbf{0} \text{ is the } \textbf{additive identity} \\ \textbf{of Multiplication} \text{ For any real number } a:a·1=a & 1·a=a \\ \\ \\ \textbf{1} \text{ is the } \textbf{multiplicative identity} \end{array}\]

    What number added to 5 gives the additive identity, 0? We know

    The missing number was the opposite of the number!

    We call \(−a\) the additive inverse of \(a\). The opposite of a number is its additive inverse. A number and its opposite add to zero, which is the additive identity. This leads to the Inverse Property of Addition that states for any real number \(a,a+(−a)=0.\)

    What number multiplied by \(\frac{2}{3}\) gives the multiplicative identity, 1? In other words, \(\frac{2}{3}\) times what results in 1? We know

    The missing number was the reciprocal of the number!

    We call \(\frac{1}{a}\) the multiplicative inverse of a. The reciprocal of a number is its multiplicative inverse. This leads to the Inverse Property of Multiplication that states that for any real number \(a,a\neq 0,a·\frac{1}{a}=1.\)

    We’ll formally state the inverse properties here.

    INVERSE PROPERTY

    \[\begin{array}{lc} \textbf{of addition} \text{For any real number }a, & a+(−a)=0 \\ \;\;\;\; −a \text{ is the } \textbf{additive inverse }\text{ of }a & {} \\ \;\;\;\; \text{A number and its } \textit{opposite } \text{add to zero.} \\ \\ \\ \textbf{of multiplication } \text{For any real number }a,a\neq 0 & a·\dfrac{1}{a}=1 \\ \;\;\;\;\;\dfrac{1}{a} \text{ is the } \textbf{multiplicative inverse} \text{ of }a \\ \;\;\;\; \text{A number and its } \textit{reciprocal} \text{ multiply to one.} \end{array}\]

    The Identity Property of addition says that when we add 0 to any number, the result is that same number. What happens when we multiply a number by 0? Multiplying by 0 makes the product equal zero.

    What about division involving zero? What is \(0÷3\)? Think about a real example: If there are no cookies in the cookie jar and 3 people are to share them, how many cookies does each person get? There are no cookies to share, so each person gets 0 cookies. So, \(0÷3=0.\)

    We can check division with the related multiplication fact. So we know \(0÷3=0\) because \(0·3=0\).

    Now think about dividing by zero. What is the result of dividing 4 by 0? Think about the related multiplication fact:

    Is there a number that multiplied by 0 gives 4? Since any real number multiplied by 0 gives 0, there is no real number that can be multiplied by 0 to obtain 4. We conclude that there is no answer to \(4÷0\) and so we say that division by 0 is undefined.

    We summarize the properties of zero here.

    PROPERTIES OF ZERO

    Multiplication by Zero: For any real number a,

    \[a⋅0=0 \; \; \; 0⋅a=0 \; \; \; \; \text{The product of any number and 0 is 0.}\]

    Division by Zero: For any real number a, \(a\neq 0\)

    \[\begin{array}{cl} \dfrac{0}{a}=0 & \text{Zero divided by any real number, except itself, is zero.} \\ \dfrac{a}{0} \text{ is undefined} & \text{Division by zero is undefined.} \end{array}\]

    We will now practice using the properties of identities, inverses, and zero to simplify expressions.

    EXAMPLE \(\PageIndex{7}\)

    Simplify: \(−84n+(−73n)+84n.\)

    Answer

    \(\begin{array}{lc} \text{} & −84n+(−73n)+84n \\ \text{Notice that the first and third terms are} \\ \text{opposites; use the Commutative Property of} & −84n+84n+(−73n) \\ \text{addition to re-order the terms.} \\ \text{Add left to right.} & 0+(−73n) \\ \text{Add.} & −73n \end{array}\)

    EXAMPLE \(\PageIndex{8}\)

    Simplify: \(−27a+(−48a)+27a\).

    Answer

    \(−48a\)

    EXAMPLE \(\PageIndex{9}\)

    Simplify: \(39x+(−92x)+(−39x)\).

    Answer

    \(−92x\)

    Now we will see how recognizing reciprocals is helpful. Before multiplying left to right, look for reciprocals—their product is 1.

    EXAMPLE \(\PageIndex{10}\)

    Simplify: \(\frac{7}{15}⋅\frac{8}{23}⋅\frac{15}{7}\).

    Answer

    \(\begin{array}{lc} \text{} & \frac{7}{15}⋅\frac{8}{23}⋅\frac{15}{7} \\ \text{Notice the first and third terms} \\ {\text{are reciprocals, so use the Commutative} \\ \text{Property of multiplication to re-order the} \\ \text{factors.}} & \frac{7}{15}·\frac{15}{7}·\frac{8}{23} \\ \text{Multiply left to right.} & 1·\frac{8}{23} \\ \text{Multiply.} & \frac{8}{23} \end{array}\)

    EXAMPLE \(\PageIndex{11}\)

    Simplify: \(\frac{9}{16}⋅\frac{5}{49}⋅\frac{16}{9}\).

    Answer

    \(\frac{5}{49}\)

    EXAMPLE \(\PageIndex{12}\)

    Simplify: \(\frac{6}{17}⋅\frac{11}{25}⋅\frac{17}{6}\).

    Answer

    \(\frac{11}{25}\)

    The next example makes us aware of the distinction between dividing 0 by some number or some number being divided by 0.

    EXAMPLE \(\PageIndex{13}\)

    Simplify: ⓐ \(\frac{0}{n+5}\), where \(n\neq −5\) ⓑ \(\frac{10−3p}{0}\) where \(10−3p\neq 0.\)

    Answer

    \(\begin{array}{lc} {} & \dfrac{0}{n+5} \\ \text{Zero divided by any real number except itself is 0.} & 0 \end{array}\)

    \(\begin{array}{lc} {} & \dfrac{10−3p}{0} \\ \text{Division by 0 is undefined.} & \text{undefined} \end{array}\)

    EXAMPLE \(\PageIndex{14}\)

    Simplify: ⓐ \(\frac{0}{m+7}\), where \(m\neq −7\) ⓑ \(\frac{18−6c}{0}\), where \(18−6c\neq 0\).

    Answer

    ⓐ 0 ⓑ undefined

    EXAMPLE \(\PageIndex{15}\)

    Simplify: ⓐ\(\frac{0}{d−4}\), where \(d\neq 4\) ⓑ \(\frac{15−4q}{0}\), where \(15−4q\neq 0\).

    Answer

    ⓐ 0 ⓑ undefined

    Simplify Expressions Using the Distributive Property

    Suppose that three friends are going to the movies. They each need $9.25—that’s 9 dollars and 1 quarter—to pay for their tickets. How much money do they need all together?

    You can think about the dollars separately from the quarters. They need 3 times $9 so $27 and 3 times 1 quarter, so 75 cents. In total, they need $27.75. If you think about doing the math in this way, you are using the Distributive Property.

    DISTRIBUTIVE PROPERTY

    \(\begin{array}{lc} \text{If }a,b \text{,and }c \text{are real numbers, then} \; \; \; \; \; & a(b+c)=ab+ac \\ {} & (b+c)a=ba+ca \\ {} & a(b−c)=ab−ac \\{} & (b−c)a=ba−ca \end{array}\)

    In algebra, we use the Distributive Property to remove parentheses as we simplify expressions.

    EXAMPLE \(\PageIndex{16}\)

    Simplify: \(3(x+4)\).

    Answer

    \(\begin{array} {} & 3(x+4) \\ \text{Distribute.} \; \; \; \; \; \; \; \; & 3·x+3·4 \\ \text{Multiply.} & 3x+12 \end{array}\)

    EXAMPLE \(\PageIndex{17}\)

    Simplify: \(4(x+2)\).

    Answer

    \(4x8\)

    EXAMPLE \(\PageIndex{18}\)

    Simplify: \(6(x+7)\).

    Answer

    \(6x42\)

    Some students find it helpful to draw in arrows to remind them how to use the Distributive Property. Then the first step in Example would look like this:

    EXAMPLE \(\PageIndex{19}\)

    Simplify: \(8(\frac{3}{8}x+\frac{1}{4})\).

    Answer
     
    Distribute.
    Multiply.

    EXAMPLE \(\PageIndex{20}\)

    Simplify: \(6(\frac{5}{6}y+\frac{1}{2})\).

    Answer

    \(5y+3\)

    EXAMPLE \(\PageIndex{21}\)

    Simplify: \(12(\frac{1}{3}n+\frac{3}{4})\)

    Answer

    \(4n+9\)

    Using the Distributive Property as shown in the next example will be very useful when we solve money applications in later chapters.

    EXAMPLE \(\PageIndex{22}\)

    Simplify: \(100(0.3+0.25q)\).

    Answer
     
    Distribute.
    Multiply.

    EXAMPLE \(\PageIndex{23}\)

    Simplify: \(100(0.7+0.15p).\)

    Answer

    \(70+15p\)

    EXAMPLE \(\PageIndex{24}\)

    Simplify: \(100(0.04+0.35d)\).

    Answer

    \(4+35d\)

    When we distribute a negative number, we need to be extra careful to get the signs correct!

    EXAMPLE \(\PageIndex{25}\)

    Simplify: \(−11(4−3a).\)

    Answer

    \(\begin{array}{lc} {} & −11(4−3a) \\ \text{Distribute. } \; \; \; \; \; \; \; \; \; \;& −11·4−(−11)·3a \\ \text{Multiply.} & −44−(−33a) \\ \text{Simplify.} & −44+33a \end{array}\)

    Notice that you could also write the result as \(33a−44.\) Do you know why?

    EXAMPLE \(\PageIndex{26}\)

    Simplify: \(−5(2−3a)\).

    Answer

    \(−10+15a\)

    EXAMPLE \(\PageIndex{27}\)

    Simplify: \(−7(8−15y).\)

    Answer

    \(−56+105y\)

    In the next example, we will show how to use the Distributive Property to find the opposite of an expression.

    EXAMPLE \(\PageIndex{28}\)

    Simplify: \(−(y+5)\).

    Answer

    \(\begin{array}{lc} {} & −(y+5) \\ \text{Multiplying by }−1 \text{ results in the opposite.}& −1(y+5) \\ \text{Distribute.} & −1·y+(−1)·5 \\ \text{Simplify.} & −y+(−5) \\ \text{Simplify.} & −y−5 \end{array} \)

    EXAMPLE \(\PageIndex{29}\)

    Simplify: \(−(z−11)\).

    Answer

    \(−z+11\)

    EXAMPLE \(\PageIndex{30}\)

    Simplify: \(−(x−4)\).

    Answer

    \(−x+4\)

    There will be times when we’ll need to use the Distributive Property as part of the order of operations. Start by looking at the parentheses. If the expression inside the parentheses cannot be simplified, the next step would be multiply using the Distributive Property, which removes the parentheses. The next two examples will illustrate this.

    EXAMPLE \(\PageIndex{31}\)

    Simplify: \(8−2(x+3)\)

    Answer

    We follow the order of operations. Multiplication comes before subtraction, so we will distribute the 2 first and then subtract.

    \(\begin{array}{lc} {} & \text{8−2(x+3)} \\ \text{Distribute.} & 8−2·x−2·3 \\ \text{Multiply.} & 8−2x−6 \\ \text{Combine like terms.} &−2x+2 \end{array}\)

    EXAMPLE \(\PageIndex{32}\)

    Simplify: \(9−3(x+2)\).

    Answer

    \(3−3x\)

    EXAMPLE \(\PageIndex{33}\)

    Simplify: \(7x−5(x+4)\).

    Answer

    \(2x−20\)

    EXAMPLE \(\PageIndex{34}\)

    Simplify: \(4(x−8)−(x+3)\).

    Answer

    \(\begin{array}{lc} {} & 4(x−8)−(x+3) \\ \text{Distribute.} & 4x−32−x−3 \\ \text{Combine like terms.} & 3x−35 \end{array}\)

    EXAMPLE \(\PageIndex{35}\)

    Simplify: \(6(x−9)−(x+12)\).

    Answer

    \(5x−66\)

    EXAMPLE \(\PageIndex{36}\)

    Simplify: \(8(x−1)−(x+5)\).

    Answer

    \(7x−13\)

    All the properties of real numbers we have used in this chapter are summarized here.

    Commutative Property

    When adding or multiplying, changing the order gives the same result

    \[\begin{array}{lll} \textbf{of Addition} & \text{If }a \text{ and }b \text{are real numbers, then} & a+b=b+a. \\ \textbf{of Multiplication} & \text{If }a \text{ and }b \text{are real numbers, then} & a·b=b·a. \end{array} \]
    Associative Property

    When adding or multiplying, changing the grouping gives the same result.

    \[\begin{array}{lll} \textbf{of Addition} & \text{If }a,b, \text{ and }c \text{ are real numbers, then} & (a+b)+c=a+(b+c). \\ \textbf{of Multiplication} & \text{If }a,b,\text{ and }c \text{ are real numbers, then} & (a·b)·c=a·(b·c). \end{array} \]
    Distributive Property

    \[\begin{array}{lc} \text{If }a,b \text{,and }c \text{are real numbers, then} \; \; \; \; \; & a(b+c)=ab+ac \\ {} & (b+c)a=ba+ca \\ {} & a(b−c)=ab−ac \\{} & (b−c)a=ba−ca \end{array}\]

    Identity Property
    \[\begin{array}{ll} \textbf{of Addition} \text{ For any real number }a:a+0=a & 0+a=a \\ \;\;\;\; \textbf{0} \text{ is the } \textbf{additive identity} \\ \textbf{of Multiplication} \text{ For any real number } a:a·1=a & 1·a=a \\ \;\;\;\; \textbf{1} \text{ is the } \textbf{multiplicative identity} \end{array}\]
    Inverse Property

    \[\begin{array}{lc} \textbf{of addition } \text{For any real number }a, & a+(−a)=0 \\ \;\;\;\; −a \text{ is the } \textbf{additive inverse }\text{ of }a & {} \\ \;\;\;\; \text{A number and its } \textit{opposite } \text{add to zero.} \\ \\ \\ \textbf{of multiplication } \text{For any real number }a,a\neq 0 & a·\dfrac{1}{a}=1 \\ \;\;\;\;\;\dfrac{1}{a} \text{ is the } \textbf{multiplicative inverse} \text{ of }a \\ \;\;\;\; \text{A number and its } \textit{reciprocal} \text{ multiply to one.} \end{array}\]

    Properties of Zero
    \[\begin{array}{lc} \text{For any real number }a, & a·0=0 \\ {} & 0·a=0 \\ \text{For any real number }a,a\neq 0, & \dfrac{0}{a}=0 \\ \text{For any real number }a, & \dfrac{a}{0} \text{ is undefined} \end{array}\]

    Key Concepts

    Commutative Property
    When adding or multiplying, changing the order gives the same result

    \[\begin{array}{lll} \textbf{of Addition} & \text{If }a \text{ and }b \text{are real numbers, then} & a+b=b+a. \\ \textbf{of Multiplication} & \text{If }a \text{ and }b \text{are real numbers, then} & a·b=b·a. \end{array} \]

    Associative Property When adding or multiplying, changing the grouping gives the same result. \[\begin{array}{lll} \textbf{of Addition} & \text{If }a,b, \text{ and }c \text{ are real numbers, then} & (a+b)+c=a+(b+c). \\ \textbf{of Multiplication} & \text{If }a,b,\text{ and }c \text{ are real numbers, then} & (a·b)·c=a·(b·c). \end{array} \]
    Distributive Property

    \[\begin{array}{lc} \text{If }a,b \text{,and }c \text{are real numbers, then} \; \; \; \; \; & a(b+c)=ab+ac \\ {} & (b+c)a=ba+ca \\ {} & a(b−c)=ab−ac \\{} & (b−c)a=ba−ca \end{array}\]

    Identity Property

    \[\begin{array}{ll} \textbf{of Addition} \text{ For any real number }a:a+0=a & 0+a=a \\ \;\;\;\; \textbf{0} \text{ is the } \textbf{additive identity} \\ \textbf{of Multiplication} \text{ For any real number } a:a·1=a & 1·a=a \\ \;\;\;\; \textbf{1} \text{ is the } \textbf{multiplicative identity} \end{array}\]

    Inverse Property

    \[\begin{array}{lc} \textbf{of addition} \text{For any real number }a, & a+(−a)=0 \\ \;\;\;\; −a \text{ is the } \textbf{additive inverse }\text{ of }a & {} \\ \;\;\;\; \text{A number and its } \textit{opposite } \text{add to zero.} \\ \\ \\ \textbf{of multiplication } \text{For any real number }a,a\neq 0 & a·\dfrac{1}{a}=1 \\ \;\;\;\;\;\dfrac{1}{a} \text{ is the } \textbf{multiplicative inverse} \text{ of }a \\ \;\;\;\; \text{A number and its } \textit{reciprocal} \text{ multiply to one.} \end{array}\]

    Properties of Zero

    \[\begin{array}{lc} \text{For any real number }a, & a·0=0 \\ {} & 0·a=0 \\ \text{For any real number }a,a\neq 0, & \dfrac{0}{a}=0 \\ \text{For any real number }a, & \dfrac{a}{0} \text{ is undefined} \end{array}\]

    Section Exercises

    Practice Makes Perfect

    Use the Commutative and Associative Properties

    In the following exercises, simplify.

    \(43m+(−12n)+(−16m)+(−9n)\)

    Answer

    \(27m+(−21n)\)

    \(−22p+17q+(−35p)+(−27q)\)

    \(\frac{3}{8}g+\frac{1}{12}h+\frac{7}{8}g+\frac{5}{12}h\)

    Answer

    \(\frac{5}{4}g+\frac{1}{2}h\)

    \(\frac{5}{6}a+\frac{3}{10}b+\frac{1}{6}a+\frac{9}{10}b\)

    \(6.8p+9.14q+(−4.37p)+(−0.88q)\)

    Answer

    \(2.43p+8.26q\)

    \(9.6m+7.22n+(−2.19m)+(−0.65n)\)

    \(−24·7·\frac{3}{8}\)

    Answer

    \(−63\)

    \(−36·11·\frac{4}{9}\)

    \((\frac{5}{6}+\frac{8}{15})+\frac{7}{15}\)

    Answer

    \(1\frac{5}{6}\)

    \((\frac{11}{12}+\frac{4}{9})+\frac{5}{9}\)

    \(17(0.25)(4)\)

    Answer

    \(17\)

    \(36(0.2)(5)\)

    \([2.48(12)](0.5)\)

    Answer

    \(14.88\)

    \([9.731(4)](0.75)\)

    \(12(\frac{5}{6}p)\)

    Answer

    \(10p\)10p\)10p\)

    \(20(\frac{3}{5}q)\)

    Use the Properties of Identity, Inverse and Zero

    In the following exercises, simplify.

    (19a+44−19a\)

    Answer

    \(44\)

    \(27c+16−27c\)

    \(\frac{1}{2}+\frac{7}{8}+(−\frac{1}{2})\)

    Answer

    \(\frac{7}{8}\)

    \(\frac{2}{5}+\frac{5}{12}+(−\frac{2}{5})\)

    \(10(0.1d)\)

    Answer

    \(d\)

    \(100(0.01p)\)

    \(\frac{3}{20}·\frac{49}{11}·\frac{20}{3}\)

    Answer

    \(\frac{49}{11}\)

    \(\frac{13}{18}·\frac{25}{7}·\frac{18}{13}\)

    \(\frac{0}{u−4.99}\), where \(u\neq 4.99\)

    Answer

    \(0\)

    \(0÷(y−\frac{1}{6})\), where \(x \neq 16\)

    \(\frac{32−5a}{0}\), where \(32−5a\neq 0\)

     
    Answer

    undefined

    \(\frac{28−9b}{0}\), where \(28−9b\neq 0\)

    \((\frac{3}{4}+\frac{9}{10}m)÷0\), where \(\frac{3}{4}+\frac{9}{10}m\neq 0\)

    Answer

    undefined

    \((\frac{5}{16}n−\frac{3}{7})÷0\), where \(\frac{5}{16}n−\frac{3}{7}\neq 0\)

     

    Simplify Expressions Using the Distributive Property

    In the following exercises, simplify using the Distributive Property.

    \(8(4y+9)\)

    Answer

    \(32y+72\)

    \(9(3w+7)\)

    \(6(c−13)\)

    Answer

    \(6c−78\)

    \(7(y−13)\)

    \(\frac{1}{4}(3q+12)\)

    Answer

    \(\frac{3}{4}q+3\)

    \(\frac{1}{5}(4m+20)\)

    \(9(\frac{5}{9}y−\frac{1}{3})\)

    Answer

    \(5y−3\)

    \(10(\frac{3}{10}x−\frac{2}{5})\)

    \(12(\frac{1}{4}+\frac{2}{3}r)\)

    Answer

    \(3+8r\)

    \(12(\frac{1}{6}+\frac{3}{4}s)\)

    \(15⋅\frac{3}{5}(4d+10)\)

    Answer

    \(36d+90\)

    \(18⋅\frac{5}{6}(15h+24)\)

    \(r(s−18)\)

    Answer

    \(rs−18r\)

    \(u(v−10)\)

    \((y+4)p\)

    Answer

    \(yp+4p\)

    \((a+7)x\)

    \(−7(4p+1)\)

    Answer

    \(−28p−7\)

    \(−9(9a+4)\)

    \(−3(x−6)\)

    Answer

    \(−3x+18\)

    \(−4(q−7)\)

    \(−(3x−7)\)

    Answer

    \(−3x+7\)

    \(−(5p−4)\)

    \(16−3(y+8)\)

    Answer

    \(−3y−8\)

    \(18−4(x+2)\)

    \(4−11(3c−2)\)

    Answer

    \(−33c+26\)

    \(9−6(7n−5)\)

    \(22−(a+3)\)

    Answer

    \(−a+19\)

    \(8−(r−7)\)

    \((5m−3)−(m+7)\)

    Answer

    \(4m−10\)

    \((4y−1)−(y−2)\)

    \(9(8x−3)−(−2)\)

    Answer

    \(72x−25\)

    \(4(6x−1)−(−8)\)

    \(5(2n+9)+12(n−3)\)

    Answer

    \(22n+9\)

    \(9(5u+8)+2(u−6)\)

    \(14(c−1)−8(c−6)\)

    Answer

    \(6c+34\)

    \(11(n−7)−5(n−1)\)

    \(6(7y+8)−(30y−15)\)

    Answer

    \(12y+63\)

    \(7(3n+9)−(4n−13)\)

    Writing Exercises

    In your own words, state the Associative Property of addition.

    Answer

    Answers will vary.

    What is the difference between the additive inverse and the multiplicative inverse of a number

    Simplify \(8(x−\frac{1}{4})\) using the Distributive Property and explain each step.

    Answer

    Answers will vary.

    Explain how you can multiply \(4($5.97)\) without paper or calculator by thinking of \($5.97\) as \(6−0.03\) and then using the Distributive Property.

    Self Check

    ⓐ After completing the exercises, use this checklist to evaluate your mastery of the objectives of this section.

    This table has 4 columns, 3 rows and a header row. The header row labels each column I can, confidently, with some help and no, I don’t get it. The first column has the following statements: use the commutative and associative properties, use the properties of identity, inverse and zero, simplify expressions using the Distributive Property. The remaining columns are blank.

    ⓑ After reviewing this checklist, what will you do to become confident for all objectives?

    Chapter Exercise

    Use the Language of Algebra

    Identify Multiples and Factors

    Use the divisibility tests to determine whether 180 is divisible by 2, by 3, by 5, by 6, and by 10.

    Answer

    Divisible by \(2,3,5,6\)

    Find the prime factorization of 252.

    Find the least common multiple of 24 and 40.

    Answer

    120

    In the following exercises, simplify each expression.

    \(24÷3+4(5−2)\)

    \(7+3[6−4(5−4)]−3^2\)

    Answer

    4

    Evaluate an Expression

    In the following exercises, evaluate the following expressions.

    When \(x=4\), ⓐ \(x^3\) ⓑ \(5x\) ⓒ \(2x^2−5x+3\)

    \(2x^2−4xy−3y^2\) when \(x=3\), \(y=1\)

    Answer

    3

    Simplify Expressions by Combining Like Terms

    In the following exercises, simplify the following expressions by combining like terms.

    \(12y+7+2y−5\)

    \(14x^2−9x+11−8x^2+8x−6\)

    Answer

    \(6x^2−x+5\)

    Translate an English Phrase to an Algebraic Expression

    In the following exercises, translate the phrases into algebraic expressions.

     

    ⓐ the sum of \(4ab^2\) and \(7a3b24ab^2\) and \(7a^3b^2\)

    ⓑ the product of \(6y^2\) and \(3y\)

    ⓒ twelve more than \(5x\)

    ⓓ \(5y\) less than \(8y^2\)

     

    ⓐ eleven times the difference of \(y\) and two

    ⓑ the difference of eleven times \(y\) and two

    Answer

    ⓐ \(11(y−2)\) ⓑ \(11y−2\)

    Dushko has nickels and pennies in his pocket. The number of pennies is four less than five the number of nickels. Let nn represent the number of nickels. Write an expression for the number of pennies.

    Integers

    Simplify Expressions with Absolute Value

    In the following exercise, fill in \(<,>,\) or \(=\) for each of the following pairs of numbers.

    ⓐ \(−|7| \_\_\_−|−7|\)

    ⓑ \(−8 \_\_\_−|−8|\)

    ⓒ \(|−13| \_\_\_−13\)

    ⓓ \(|−12| \_\_\_−(−12)\)

    Answer

    ⓐ \(=\) ⓑ \(=\) ⓒ \(>\) ⓓ \(=\)

    In the following exercises, simplify.

    \(9−|3(4−8)|\)

    \(12−3|1−4(4−2)|\)

    Answer

    \(−9\)

    Add and Subtract Integers

    In the following exercises, simplify each expression.

    \(−12+(−8)+7\)

    ⓐ \(15−7\)

    ⓑ \(−15−(−7)\)

    ⓒ \(−15−7\)

    ⓓ \(15−(−7)\)

    Answer

    ⓐ \(8\) ⓑ \(−8\) ⓒ \(−22\) ⓓ \(22\)

    \(−11−(−12)+5\)

    ⓐ \(23−(−17)\) ⓑ \(23+17\)

    Answer

    ⓐ 40 ⓑ 40

    \(−(7−11)−(3−5)\)

    Multiply and Divide Integers

    In the following exercise, multiply or divide.

    ⓐ \(−27÷9\) ⓑ \(120÷(−8)\) ⓒ \(4(−14)\) ⓓ \(−1(−17)\)

    Answer

    ⓐ\(−3\) ⓑ \(−15\) ⓒ \(−56\) ⓓ \(17\)

    Simplify and Evaluate Expressions with Integers

    In the following exercises, simplify each expression.

    ⓐ \((−7)^3\) ⓑ \(−7^3\)

    \((7−11)(6−13)\)

    Answer

    16

    \(63÷(−9)+(−36)÷(−4)\)

    \(6−3|4(1−2)−(7−5)|\)

    Answer

    \(−12\)

    \((−2)^4−24÷(13−5)\)

    For the following exercises, evaluate each expression.

    \((y+z)^2\) when

    \(y=−4,z=7\)

    Answer

    9

    \(3x^2−2xy+4y^2\) when

    \(x=−2,y=−3\)

    Translate English Phrases to Algebraic Expressions

    In the following exercises, translate to an algebraic expression and simplify if possible.

    the sum of \(−4\) and \(−9\), increased by \(23\)

    Answer

    \((−4+(−9))+23;10\)

    ⓐ the difference of 17 and −8 ⓑ subtract 17 from −25

    Use Integers in Applications

    In the following exercise, solve.

    Temperature On July 10, the high temperature in Phoenix, Arizona, was 109°, and the high temperature in Juneau, Alaska, was 63°. What was the difference between the temperature in Palm Springs and the temperature in Whitefield?

    Answer

    \(46°\)

    Fractions

    Simplify Fractions

    In the following exercises, simplify.

    \(\frac{204}{228}\)

    \(−\frac{270x^3}{198y^2}\)

    Answer

    \(−\frac{15x^3}{11y^2}\)

    Multiply and Divide Fractions

    In the following exercises, perform the indicated operation.

    \((−\frac{14}{15})(\frac{10}{21})\)

    \(\frac{6x}{25}÷\frac{9y}{20}\)

    Answer

    \(\frac{8x}{15y}\)

    \(\frac{−\frac{4}{9}}{\frac{8}{21}}\)

    Add and Subtract Fractions

    In the following exercises, perform the indicated operation.

    \(\frac{5}{18}+\frac{7}{12}\)

    Answer

    \(\frac{31}{36}\)

    \(\frac{11}{36}−\frac{15}{48}\)

    ⓐ \(\frac{5}{8}+\frac{3}{4}\) ⓑ \(\frac{5}{8}÷\frac{3}{4}\)

    Answer

    ⓐ \(\frac{11}{8}\) ⓑ \(\frac{5}{6}\)

    ⓐ \(−\frac{3y}{10}−\frac{5}{6}\) ⓑ \(−\frac{3y}{10}·\frac{5}{6}\)

    Use the Order of Operations to Simplify Fractions

    In the following exercises, simplify.

    \(\frac{4·3−2·5}{−6·3+2·3}\)

    Answer

    \(−\frac{1}{6}\)

    \(\frac{4(7−3)−2(4−9)}{−3(4+2)+7(3−6)}\)

    \(\frac{4^3−4^2}{(\frac{4}{5})^2}\)

    Answer

    75

    Evaluate Variable Expressions with Fractions

    In the following exercises, evaluate.

    \(4x^2y^2\) when

    \(x=\frac{2}{3}\) and \(y=−\frac{3}{4}\)

    \(\frac{a+b}{a−b}\) when

    \(a=−4\), \(b=6\)

    Answer

    \(−15\)

    Decimals

    Round Decimals

    Round \(6.738\) to the nearest ⓐ hundredth ⓑ tenth ⓒ whole number.

    Add and Subtract Decimals

    In the following exercises, perform the indicated operation.

    \(−23.67+29.84\)

    Answer

    \(6.17\)

    \(54.3−100\)

    \(79.38−(−17.598)\)

    Answer

    \(96.978\)

    Multiply and Divide Decimals

    In the following exercises, perform the indicated operation.

    \((−2.8)(3.97)\)

    \((−8.43)(−57.91)\)

    Answer

    488.1813

    \((53.48)(10)\)

    \((0.563)(100)\)

    Answer

    \(56.3\)

    \( \$ 118.35÷2.6\)

    \(1.84÷(−0.8)\)

    Answer

    \(−23\)

    Convert Decimals, Fractions and Percents

    In the following exercises, write each decimal as a fraction.

    \(\frac{13}{20}\)

    \(−\frac{240}{25}\)

    Answer

    \(−9.6\)

    In the following exercises, convert each fraction to a decimal.

    \(−\frac{5}{8}\)

    \(\frac{14}{11}\)

    Answer

    \(1.\overline{27}\)

    In the following exercises, convert each decimal to a percent.

    \(2.43\)

    \(0.0475\)

    Answer

    \(4.75 \% \)

    Simplify Expressions with Square Roots

    In the following exercises, simplify.

    \(\sqrt{289}\)

    \(\sqrt{−121}\)

    Answer

    no real number

    Identify Integers, Rational Numbers, Irrational Numbers, and Real Numbers

    In the following exercise, list the ⓐ whole numbers ⓑ integers ⓒ rational numbers ⓓ irrational numbers ⓔ real numbers for each set of numbers

    \(−8,0,1.95286...,\frac{12}{5},\sqrt{36},9\)

    Locate Fractions and Decimals on the Number Line

    In the following exercises, locate the numbers on a number line.

    \(\frac{3}{4},−\frac{3}{4},1\frac{1}{3},−1\frac{2}{3},\frac{7}{2},−\frac{5}{2}\)

    Answer

    Figure shows a number line with numbers ranging from minus 4 to 4. Some values are highlighted.

    ⓐ \(3.2\) ⓑ \(−1.35\)

    Properties of Real Numbers

    Use the Commutative and Associative Properties

    In the following exercises, simplify.

    \(\frac{5}{8}x+\frac{5}{12}y+\frac{1}{8}x+\frac{7}{12}y\)

    Answer

    \(\frac{3}{4}x+y\)

    \(−32·9·\frac{5}{8}\)

    \((\frac{11}{15}+\frac{3}{8})+\frac{5}{8}\)

    Answer

    \(1\frac{11}{15}\)

    Use the Properties of Identity, Inverse and Zero

    In the following exercises, simplify.

    \(\frac{4}{7}+\frac{8}{15}+(−\frac{4}{7})\)

    \(\frac{13}{15}·\frac{9}{17}·\frac{15}{13}\)

    Answer

    \(\frac{9}{17}\)

    \(\frac{0}{x−3},x\neq 3\)

    \(\frac{5x−7}{0},5x−7\neq 0\)

    Answer

    undefined

    Simplify Expressions Using the Distributive Property

    In the following exercises, simplify using the Distributive Property.

    \(8(a−4)\)

    \(12(\frac{2}{3}b+\frac{5}{6})\)

    Answer

    \(8b+10\)

    \(18·\frac{5}{6}(2x−5)\)

    \((x−5)p\)

    Answer

    \(xp−5p\)

    \(−4(y−3)\)

    \(12−6(x+3)\)

    Answer

    \(−6x−6\)

    \(6(3x−4)−(−5)\)

    \(5(2y+3)−(4y−1)\)

    Answer

    \(y+16\)

    Practice Test

    Find the prime factorization of \(756\).

    Combine like terms: \(5n+8+2n−1\)

    Answer

    \(7n+7\)

    Evaluate when \(x=−2\) and \(y=3: \frac{|3x−4y|}{6}\)

    Translate to an algebraic expression and simplify:

    ⓐ eleven less than negative eight

    ⓑ the difference of \(−8\) and \(−3\), increased by 5

    Answer

    \(−8−11;−19\)

    \((−8−(−3))+5;0\)

    Dushko has nickels and pennies in his pocket. The number of pennies is seven less than four times the number of nickels. Let nn represent the number of nickels. Write an expression for the number of pennies.

    Round \(28.1458\) to the nearest

    ⓐ hundredth ⓑ thousandth

    Answer

    ⓐ \(28.15\) ⓑ \(28.146\)

    Convert

    ⓐ \(\frac{5}{11}\) to a decimal ⓑ \(1.15\) to a percent

    Locate \(\frac{3}{5},2.8,and−\frac{5}{2}\) on a number line.

    Answer

    In the following exercises, simplify each expression.

    \(8+3[6−3(5−2)]−4^2\)

    \(−(4−9)−(9−5)\)

    Answer

    1

    \(56÷(−8)+(−27)÷(−3)\)

    \(16−2|3(1−4)−(8−5)|\)

    Answer

    \(−8\)

    \(−5+2(−3)^2−9\)

    \(\frac{180}{204}\)

    Answer

    \(\frac{15}{17}\)

    \(−\frac{7}{18}+\frac{5}{12}\)

    \(\frac{4}{5}÷(−\frac{12}{25})\)

    Answer

    \(−\frac{5}{3}\)

    \(\frac{9−3·9}{15−9}\)

    \(\frac{4(−3+2(3−6))}{3(11−3(2+3))}\)

    Answer

    \(3\)

    \(\frac{5}{13}⋅\frac{4}{7}⋅\frac{13}{5}\)

    \(\frac{−\frac{5}{9}}{\frac{10}{21}}\)

    Answer

    \(−\frac{7}{6}\)

    \(−4.8+(−6.7)\)

    \(34.6−100\)

    Answer

    \(−65.4\)

    \(−12.04⋅(4.2)\)

    \(−8÷0.05\)

    Answer

    160

    \(−\sqrt{121}\)

    \((\frac{8}{13}+\frac{5}{7})+\frac{2}{7}\)

    Answer

    \(1\frac{8}{13}\)

    \(5x+(−8y)−6x+3y\)

    ⓐ \(\frac{0}{9}\) ⓑ \(\frac{11}{0}\)

    Answer

    ⓐ 0 ⓑ undefined

    \(−3(8x−5)\)

    \(6(3y−1)−(5y−3)\)

    Answer

    \(13y−3\)

    Glossary

    additive identity
    The number 0 is the additive identity because adding 0 to any number does not change its value.
    additive inverse
    The opposite of a number is its additive inverse.
    multiplicative identity
    The number 1 is the multiplicative identity because multiplying 1 by any number does not change its value.
    multiplicative inverse
    The reciprocal of a number is its multiplicative inverse.