Skip to main content
\(\newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\) \( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\) \( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\) \( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}\) \( \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\)
Mathematics LibreTexts

8.3: Taylor Series

  • Page ID
  • \( \newcommand{\vecs}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}} } \) \( \newcommand{\vecd}[1]{\overset{-\!-\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash {#1}}} \)\(\newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\) \( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\) \( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\) \( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}\) \( \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \(\newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\) \( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\) \( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\) \( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}\) \( \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\)

    The previous section showed that a power series converges to an analytic function inside its disk of convergence. Taylor’s theorem completes the story by giving the converse: around each point of analyticity an analytic function equals a convergent power series.

    Theorem \(\PageIndex{1}\): Taylor's Theorem

    Suppose \(f(z)\) is an analytic function in a region \(A\). Let \(z_0 \in A\). Then,

    \[f(z) = \sum_{n = 0}^{\infty} a_n (z - z_0)^n,\]

    where the series converges on any disk \(|z - z_0| < r\) contained in \(A\). Furthermore, we have formulas for the coefficients

    \[a_n = \dfrac{f^{(n)} (z_0)}{n!} = \dfrac{1}{2\pi i} \int_{\gamma} \dfrac{f(z)}{(z - z_0)^{n + 1}} \ dz.\]

    (Where \(\gamma\) is any simple closed curve in \(A\) around \(z_0\), with its interior entirely in \(A\).)

    We call the series the power series representing \(f\) around \(z_0\).


    The proof will be given below. First we look at some consequences of Taylor’s theorem.


    The power series representing an analytic function around a point \(z_0\) is unique. That is, the coefficients are uniquely determined by the function \(f(z)\).


    Taylor’s theorem gives a formula for the coefficients.

    Order of a Zero

    Theorem \(\PageIndex{2}\)

    Suppose \(f(z)\) is analytic on the disk \(|z - z_0| < r\) and \(f\) is not identically 0. Then there is an integer \(k \ge 0\) such that \(a_k \ne 0\) and \(f\) has Taylor series around \(z_0\) given by

    \[\begin{align} f(z) &= (z - z_0)^k (a_k + a_{k + 1} (z - z_0) + ...) \\[4pt] &= (z - z_0)^k \sum_{n = k}^{\infty} a_n (z - z_0)^{n - k}. \label{8.4.3} \end{align}\]


    Since \(f(z)\) is not identically 0, not all the Taylor coefficients are zero. So, we take \(k\) to be the index of the first nonzero coefficient.

    Theorem \(\PageIndex{3}\): Zeros are Isolated

    If \(f(z)\) is analytic and not identically zero then the zeros of \(f\) are isolated. (By isolated we mean that we can draw a small disk around any zeros that doesn’t contain any other zeros.)

    001 - (8.3.3).svg
    Figure \(\PageIndex{1}\): Isolated zero at \(z_0\): \(f(z_0) = 0\), \(f(z) \ne 0\) elsewhere in the disk. (CC BY-NC; Ümit Kaya)

    Suppose \(f(z_0) = 0\). Write \(f\) as in Equation 8.4.3. There are two factors:

    \[(z - z_0)^k \nonumber\]


    \[g(z) = a_k + a_{k + 1} (z - z_0) + ... \nonumber\]

    Clearly \((z - z_0)^k \ne 0\) if \(z \ne z_0\). We have \(g(z_0) = a_k \ne 0\), so \(g(z)\) is not 0 on some small neighborhood of \(z_0\). We conclude that on this neighborhood the product is only zero when \(z = z_0\), i.e. \(z_0\) is an isolated 0.

    Definition: Order of the Zero

    The integer \(k\) in Equation \ref{8.4.3} is called the order of the zero of \(f\) at \(z_0\).

    Note, if \(f(z_0) \ne 0\) then \(z_0\) is a zero of order 0.

    8.3: Taylor Series is shared under a CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Jeremy Orloff (MIT OpenCourseWare) via source content that was edited to conform to the style and standards of the LibreTexts platform; a detailed edit history is available upon request.