# Table of Contents

- Page ID
- 24033

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The text guides students through the core concepts of calculus and helps them understand how those concepts apply to their lives and the world around them.

## 1: Functions and Graphs

In this chapter, we review all the functions necessary to study calculus. We define polynomial, rational, trigonometric, exponential, and logarithmic functions. We review how to evaluate these functions, and we show the properties of their graphs. We provide examples of equations with terms involving these functions and illustrate the algebraic techniques necessary to solve them. In short, this chapter provides the foundation for the material to come.## 2: Limits

The idea of a limit is central to all of calculus. We begin this chapter by examining why limits are so important. Then, we go on to describe how to find the limit of a function at a given point. Not all functions have limits at all points, and we discuss what this means and how we can tell if a function does or does not have a limit at a particular value.## 3: Derivatives

Calculating velocity and changes in velocity are important uses of calculus, but it is far more widespread than that. Calculus is important in all branches of mathematics, science, and engineering, and it is critical to analysis in business and health as well. In this chapter, we explore one of the main tools of calculus, the derivative, and show convenient ways to calculate derivatives. We apply these rules to a variety of functions in this chapter.## 4: Applications of Derivatives

In this chapter we look at how derivatives are used to find maximum and minimum values of functions. As a result, we will be able to solve applied optimization problems, such as maximizing revenue and minimizing surface area. In addition, we examine how derivatives are used to evaluate complicated limits, to approximate roots of functions, and to provide accurate graphs of functions.## 6: Applications of Integration

In this chapter, we use definite integrals to calculate the force exerted on the dam when the reservoir is full and we examine how changing water levels affect that force. Hydrostatic force is only one of the many applications of definite integrals we explore in this chapter. From geometric applications such as surface area and volume, to physical applications such as mass and work, to growth and decay models, definite integrals are a powerful tool to help us understand and model the world.## 7: Techniques of Integration

It is no surprise, then, that techniques for finding antiderivatives (or indefinite integrals) are important to know for everyone who uses them. We have already discussed some basic integration formulas and the method of integration by substitution. In this chapter, we study some additional techniques, including some ways of approximating definite integrals when normal techniques do not work.## 8: Introduction to Differential Equations

A goal of this chapter is to develop solution techniques for different types of differential equations. As the equations become more complicated, the solution techniques also become more complicated, and in fact an entire course could be dedicated to the study of these equations. In this chapter we study several types of differential equations and their corresponding methods of solution.## 9: Sequences and Series

The topic of infinite series may seem unrelated to differential and integral calculus. In fact, an infinite series whose terms involve powers of a variable is a powerful tool that we can use to express functions as “infinite polynomials.” We can use infinite series to evaluate complicated functions, approximate definite integrals, and create new functions.## 10: Power Series

A power series (in one variable) is an infinite series. Any polynomial can be easily expressed as a power series around any center c, although most of the coefficients will be zero since a power series has infinitely many terms by definition. One can view power series as being like "polynomials of infinite degree," although power series are not polynomials.## 11: Parametric Equations and Polar Coordinates

Parametric equations define a group of quantities as functions of one or more independent variables called parameters. Parametric equations are commonly used to express the coordinates of the points that make up a geometric object such as a curve or surface, in which case the equations are collectively called a parametric representation or parameterization.## 12: Vectors in Space

A quantity that has magnitude and direction is called a vector. Vectors have many real-life applications, including situations involving force or velocity. For example, consider the forces acting on a boat crossing a river. The boat’s motor generates a force in one direction, and the current of the river generates a force in another direction. Both forces are vectors. We must take both the magnitude and direction of each force into account if we want to know where the boat will go.## 13: Vector-Valued Functions

A vector-valued function, also referred to as a vector function, is a mathematical function of one or more variables whose range is a set of multidimensional vectors or infinite-dimensional vectors. The input of a vector-valued function could be a scalar or a vector.## 14: Differentiation of Functions of Several Variables

When dealing with a function of more than one independent variable, several questions naturally arise. For example, how do we calculate limits of functions of more than one variable? The definition of derivative we used before involved a limit. Does the new definition of derivative involve limits as well? Do the rules of differentiation apply in this context? Can we find relative extrema of functions using derivatives? All these questions are answered in this chapter.## 15: Multiple Integration

Now we examine integral calculus in multiple dimensions. Just as a partial derivative allows us to differentiate a function with respect to one variable while holding the other variables constant, we will see that an iterated integral allows us to integrate a function with respect to one variable while holding the other variables constant.## 16: Vector Calculus

In this chapter, we learn to model new kinds of integrals over fields such as magnetic fields, gravitational fields, or velocity fields. We also learn how to calculate the work done on a charged particle traveling through a magnetic field, the work done on a particle with mass traveling through a gravitational field, and the volume per unit time of water flowing through a net dropped in a river.## 17: Second-Order Differential Equations

In this chapter, we look at second-order equations, which are equations containing second derivatives of the dependent variable. The solution methods we examine are different from those discussed earlier, and the solutions tend to involve trigonometric functions as well as exponential functions. Here we concentrate primarily on second-order equations with constant coefficients.