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# 2: Linear Equations

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• 2.1: Linear Functions - Applications
The ordered pairs given by a linear function represent points on a line. Linear functions can be represented in words, function notation, tabular form, and graphical form. The rate of change of a linear function is also known as the slope. An equation in the slope-intercept form of a line includes the slope and the initial value of the function. The initial value, or y-intercept, is the output value when the input of a linear function is zero.
• 2.2: Prelude to Solving Linear Equations
Law enforcement and the military are using drones rather than send personnel into dangerous situations. Building and piloting a drone requires the ability to program a set of actions, including taking off, turning, and landing. This, in turn, requires the use of linear equations.
• 2.3: Use a Problem Solving Strategy
Now that we can solve equations, we are ready to apply our new skills to word problems. We will develop a strategy we can use to solve any word problem successfully.
• 2.4: Solve a Formula for a Specific Variable
Formulas are used in so many fields, it is important to recognize formulas and be able to manipulate them easily. It is often helpful to solve a formula for a specific variable. If you need to put a formula in a spreadsheet, it is not unusual to have to solve it for a specific variable first. We isolate that variable on one side of the equals sign with a coefficient of one and all other variables and constants are on the other side of the equal sign.
• 2.5: Use the Rectangular Coordinate System
Just like maps use a grid system to identify locations, a grid system is used in algebra to show a relationship between two variables in a rectangular coordinate system. The rectangular coordinate system is also called the xy-plane or the ‘coordinate plane’.
• 2.6: Graph with Intercepts
When graphing a line by plotting points, you can use any three solutions to graph. This means that two people graphing the line might use different sets of three points. At first glance, their two lines might not appear to be the same, but if all the work was done correctly, the lines should be exactly the same. One way to recognize that they are indeed the same line is to look at where the line crosses the x- axis and the y- axis. These points are called the intercepts of the line.
• 2.7: Understanding the Slope of a Line
When you graph linear equations, you may notice that some lines tilt up as they go from left to right and some lines tilt down. Some lines are very steep and some lines are flatter. What determines whether a line tilts up or down or if it is steep or flat? In mathematics, the ‘tilt’ of a line is called the slope of the line. The concept of slope has many applications in the real world: the pitch of a roof, grade of a highway, and a ramp for a wheelchair are some examples.
• 2.8: Use the Slope–Intercept Form of an Equation of a Line
We have graphed linear equations by plotting points, using intercepts, recognizing horizontal and vertical lines, and using the point–slope method. Once we see how an equation in slope–intercept form and its graph are related, we’ll have one more method we can use to graph lines.
• 2.9: Find the Equation of a Line
The physical sciences, social sciences, and the business world are full of situations that can be modeled with linear equations relating two variables. If the data points appear to form a straight line, an equation of that line can be used to predict the value of one variable based on the value of the other variable. To create a mathematical model of a linear relation between two variables, we must be able to find the equation of the line.
• 2.10: Chapter Review Exercises