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7.1E: Introduction to the Laplace Transform (Exercises)

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    134368
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    Q7.1.1

    1. Find the Laplace transforms of the following functions by evaluating the integral \(F(s)=\int_0^\infty e^{-st} f(t)\,dt\).

    1. \(t\)
    2. \(te^{-t}\)
    3. \(\sinh bt\)
    4. \(e^{2t}-3e^t\)
    5. \(t^2\)
    6. \(t^2e^{-3t}\)
    7. \(e^{2t}(t+1)^2\)
    8. \(e^{-t}\sin 4t\)

    2. Find the Laplace transforms of the following functions.

    1. \(\cosh t\sin t\)
    2. \(\sin^2t\)
    3. \(\cos^2 2t\)
    4. \(\cosh^2 t\)
    5. \(t\sinh 2t\)
    6. \(\sin t\cos t\)
    7. \( {\sin\left(t+{\pi\over 4}\right)}\)
    8. \(\cos 2t -\cos 3t\)
    9. \(\sin 2t +\cos 4t\)

    3. Show that

    \[\int_0^\infty e^{-st}e^{t^2} dt=\infty\nonumber \]

    for every real number \(s\).

    4. Graph the following piecewise continuous functions and evaluate \(f(t+)\), \(f(t-)\), and \(f(t)\) at each point of discontinuity.

    1. \(f(t)=\left\{\begin{array}{cl} -t, & 0\le t<2,\\ t-4, & 2\le t<3,\\ 1, & t\ge 3.\end{array}\right.\)
    2. \(f(t)=\left\{\begin{array}{cl} t^2+2, & 0 \le t<1,\\4, & t=1,\\ t, & t> 1.\end{array}\right.\)
    3. \(f(t)=\left\{\begin{array}{rl} \sin t, & 0\le t<\pi/ 2,\\ 2\sin t, &\pi/ 2 \le t<\pi,\\ \cos t, & t\ge\pi.\end{array}\right.\)
    4. \(f(t)=\left\{\begin{array}{cl}t, & 0\le t<1,\\ 2, & t=1,\\ 2-t, & 1 < t<2,\\ 3, & t=2,\\ 6, & t> 2.\end{array}\right.\)

    5. Find the Laplace transform:

    1. \(f(t)=\left\{\begin{array}{rl} e^{-t}, & 0\le t<1,\\ e^{-2t}, & t\ge 1.\end{array}\right.\)
    2. \(f(t)=\left\{\begin{array}{rl} 1, & 0\le t< 4,\\ t, & t\ge 4.\end{array}\right.\)
    3. \(f(t)=\left\{\begin{array}{rl} t, & 0\le t<1,\\ 1, & t\ge 1.\end{array}\right.\)
    4. \(f(t)=\left\{\begin{array}{rl} te^t, & 0\le t<1,\\\phantom{t} e^t, & t\ge 1.\end{array}\right.\)

    6. Recall the next theorem from calculus.

    Theorem \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    Let \(g\) be integrable on \([0,T]\) for every \(T>0.\) Suppose there’s a function \(w\) defined on some interval \([\tau,\infty)\) (with \(\tau\ge 0\)) such that \(|g(t)|\le w(t)\) for \(t\ge\tau\) and \(\int^\infty_\tau w(t)\,dt\) converges. Then \(\int_0^\infty g(t)\,dt\) converges.

    Use Theorem \(\PageIndex{1}\) to show that if \(f\) is piecewise continuous on \([0,\infty)\) and of exponential order \(s_0\), then \(f\) has a Laplace transform \(F(s)\) defined for \(s>s_0\).

    7. Prove: If \(f\) is piecewise continuous and of exponential order then \(\lim_{s\to\infty}F(s)~=~0\).

    8. Prove: If \(f\) is continuous on \([0,\infty)\) and of exponential order \(s_0>0\), then

    \[{\cal L}\left(\int^t_0 f(\tau)\,d\tau\right)={1\over s} {\cal L} (f), \quad s>s_0.\nonumber \] HINT: Use integration by parts to evaluate the transform on the left.

    9. Suppose \(f\) is piecewise continuous and of exponential order, and that \(\lim_{t\to 0+} f(t)/t\) exists. Show that

    \[{\cal L}\left({f(t)\over t}\right)=\int^\infty_s F(r)\,dr.\nonumber \] HINT: Use the results of Exercises 8.1.6 and 8.1.11.

    10. Use the result of Exercise 7.1.9 to find the Laplace transforms of the following functions.

    1. \(\frac{\sin \omega t}{t}\quad (\omega >0)\)
    2. \(\frac{\cos \omega t-1}{t}\quad (\omega >0)\)
    3. \(\frac{e^{at}-e^{bt}}{t}\)
    4. \(\frac{\cosh t-1}{t}\)
    5. \(\frac{\sinh ^{2}t}{t}\)

    11. The gamma function is defined by

    \[\Gamma (\alpha)=\int_0^\infty x^{\alpha-1}e^{-x}\,dx,\nonumber \]

    which can be shown to converge if \(\alpha>0\).

    1. Use integration by parts to show that \[\Gamma (\alpha+1)=\alpha\Gamma (\alpha),\quad\alpha>0.\nonumber \]
    2. Show that \(\Gamma(n+1)=n!\) if \(n=1\), \(2\), \(3\),….
    3. From (b) and the table of Laplace transforms, \[{\cal L}(t^\alpha)={\Gamma (\alpha+1)\over s^{\alpha+1}},\quad s>0,\nonumber \] if \(\alpha\) is a nonnegative integer. Show that this formula is valid for any \(\alpha>-1\). HINT: Change the variable of integration in the integral for \(\Gamma (\alpha +1)\).

    12. Suppose \(f\) is continuous on \([0, T]\) and \(f(t+T)=f(t)\) for all \(t\ge 0\). (We say in this case that \(f\) is periodic with period \(T\).)

    1. Conclude from Theorem 7.1.6 that the Laplace transform of \(f\) is defined for \(s>0\).
    2. Show that \[F(s)={1\over 1-e^{-sT}}\int_0^T e^{-st}f(t)\,dt,\quad s>0.\nonumber \] HINT: Write \[F(s)=\sum_{n=0}^{\infty}\int_{nT}^{(n+1)T}e^{-st}f(t)dt\nonumber \] Then show that \[\int_{nT}^{(n+1)T}e^{-st}f(t)dt = e^{-nsT}\int_{0}^{T}e^{-st}f(t)dt\nonumber \] and recall the formula for the sum of a geometric series.

    13. Use the formula given in Exercise 7.1.12b to find the Laplace transforms of the given periodic functions. Graph each function over one period.

    1. \( {f(t)=\left\{\begin{array}{cl} t, & 0\le t<1,\\ 2-t, & 1\le t<2,\end{array}\right.\hskip30pt f(t+2)=f(t), \quad t\ge 0}\)
    2. \( {f(t)=\left\{\begin{array}{rl}1, & 0\le t<{1\over 2},\\ -1, & {1\over 2}\le t<1,\end{array}\right. \hskip30pt f(t+1)=f(t),\quad t\ge 0}\)
    3. \(f(t)=|\sin t|\)
    4. \( {f(t)=\left\{\begin{array}{cl}\sin t, & 0\le t< \pi, \\ 0, &\pi\le t<2\pi,\end{array}\right.\hskip30pt f(t+2\pi)=f(t)}\)

    This page titled 7.1E: Introduction to the Laplace Transform (Exercises) is shared under a CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by William F. Trench.