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# 2.6E: Exercises

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## Improper Integrals

Evaluate the following integrals. If the integral is not convergent, answer “divergent.”

Exercise $$\PageIndex{1}$$

$$\displaystyle ∫^4_2\frac{dx}{(x−3)^2}$$

divergent

Exercise $$\PageIndex{2}$$

$$\displaystyle ∫^∞_0\frac{1}{4+x^2}dx$$

Add texts here. Do not delete this text first.

Exercise $$\PageIndex{3}$$

$$\displaystyle ∫^2_0\frac{1}{\sqrt{4−x^2}}dx$$

$$\displaystyle \frac{π}{2}$$

Exercise $$\PageIndex{4}$$

$$\displaystyle ∫^∞_1\frac{1}{xlnx}dx$$

Add texts here. Do not delete this text first.

Exercise $$\PageIndex{5}$$

$$\displaystyle ∫^∞_1xe^{−x}dx$$

$$\displaystyle \frac{2}{e}$$

Exercise $$\PageIndex{6}$$

$$\displaystyle ∫^∞_{−∞}\frac{x}{x^2+1}dx$$

Add texts here. Do not delete this text first.

Exercise $$\PageIndex{7}$$

Without integrating, determine whether the integral $$\displaystyle ∫^∞_1\frac{1}{\sqrt{x^3+1}}dx$$ converges or diverges by comparing the function $$\displaystyle f(x)=\frac{1}{\sqrt{x^3+1}}$$ with $$\displaystyle g(x)=\frac{1}{\sqrt{x^3}}$$.

Converges

Exercise $$\PageIndex{8}$$

Without integrating, determine whether the integral $$\displaystyle ∫^∞_1\frac{1}{\sqrt{x+1}}dx$$ converges or diverges.

Add texts here. Do not delete this text first.

Determine whether the improper integrals converge or diverge. If possible, determine the value of the integrals that converge.

Exercise $$\PageIndex{9}$$

$$\displaystyle ∫^∞_0e^{−x}cosxdx$$

Converges to $$\displaystyle 1/2$$.

Exercise $$\PageIndex{10}$$

$$\displaystyle ∫^∞_1\frac{lnx}{x}dx$$

Add texts here. Do not delete this text first.

Exercise $$\PageIndex{11}$$

$$\displaystyle ∫^1_0\frac{lnx}{\sqrt{x}}dx$$

$$\displaystyle −4$$

Exercise $$\PageIndex{12}$$

$$\displaystyle ∫^1_0lnxdx$$

Add texts here. Do not delete this text first.

Exercise $$\PageIndex{13}$$

$$\displaystyle ∫^∞_{−∞}\frac{1}{x^2+1}dx$$

$$\displaystyle π$$

Exercise $$\PageIndex{14}$$

$$\displaystyle ∫^5_1\frac{dx}{\sqrt{x−1}}$$

Add texts here. Do not delete this text first.

Exercise $$\PageIndex{15}$$

$$\displaystyle ∫^2_{−2}\frac{dx}{(1+x)^2}$$

diverges

Exercise $$\PageIndex{16}$$

$$\displaystyle ∫^∞_0e^{−x}dx$$

Add texts here. Do not delete this text first.

Exercise $$\PageIndex{17}$$

$$\displaystyle ∫^∞_0sinxdx$$

diverges

Exercise $$\PageIndex{18}$$

$$\displaystyle ∫^∞_{−∞}\frac{e^x}{1+e^{2x}}dx$$

Add texts here. Do not delete this text first.

Exercise $$\PageIndex{19}$$

$$\displaystyle ∫^1_0\frac{dx}{\sqrt{x}}$$

$$\displaystyle 1.5$$

Exercise $$\PageIndex{20}$$

$$\displaystyle ∫^2_0\frac{dx}{x^3}$$

Add texts here. Do not delete this text first.

Exercise $$\PageIndex{21}$$

$$\displaystyle ∫^2_{−1}\frac{dx}{x^3}$$

diverges

Exercise $$\PageIndex{22}$$

$$\displaystyle ∫^1_0\frac{dx}{\sqrt{1−x^2}}$$

Add texts here. Do not delete this text first.

Exercise $$\PageIndex{23}$$

$$\displaystyle ∫^3_0\frac{1}{x−1}dx$$

diverges

Exercise $$\PageIndex{24}$$

$$\displaystyle ∫^∞_1\frac{5}{x^3}dx$$

Add texts here. Do not delete this text first.

Exercise $$\PageIndex{25}$$

$$\displaystyle ∫^5_3\frac{5}{(x−4)^2}dx$$

diverges

Determine the convergence of each of the following integrals by comparison with the given integral. If the integral converges, find the number to which it converges.

Exercise $$\PageIndex{26}$$

$$\displaystyle ∫^∞_1\frac{dx}{x^2+4x};$$ compare with $$\displaystyle ∫^∞_1\frac{dx}{x^2}$$.

Add texts here. Do not delete this text first.

Exercise $$\PageIndex{27}$$

$$\displaystyle ∫^∞_1\frac{dx}{\sqrt{x}+1};$$ compare with $$\displaystyle ∫^∞_1\frac{dx}{2\sqrt{x}}$$.

Both integrals diverge.

Evaluate the integrals. If the integral diverges, answer “diverges.”

Exercise $$\PageIndex{28}$$

$$\displaystyle ∫^∞_1\frac{dx}{x^e}$$

Add texts here. Do not delete this text first.

Exercise $$\PageIndex{29}$$

$$\displaystyle ∫^1_0\frac{dx}{x^π}$$

diverges

Exercise $$\PageIndex{30}$$

$$\displaystyle ∫^1_0\frac{dx}{\sqrt{1−x}}$$

Add texts here. Do not delete this text first.

Exercise $$\PageIndex{31}$$

$$\displaystyle ∫^1_0\frac{dx}{1−x}$$

diverges

Exercise $$\PageIndex{32}$$

$$\displaystyle ∫^0_{−∞}\frac{dx}{x^2+1}$$

Add texts here. Do not delete this text first.

Exercise $$\PageIndex{33}$$

$$\displaystyle ∫^1_{−1}\frac{dx}{\sqrt{1−x^2}}$$

$$\displaystyle π$$

Exercise $$\PageIndex{34}$$

$$\displaystyle ∫^1_0\frac{lnx}{x}dx$$

Add texts here. Do not delete this text first.

Exercise $$\PageIndex{35}$$

$$\displaystyle ∫^e_0ln(x)dx$$

$$\displaystyle 0.0$$

Exercise $$\PageIndex{36}$$

$$\displaystyle ∫^∞_0xe^{−x}dx$$

Add texts here. Do not delete this text first.

Exercise $$\PageIndex{37}$$

$$\displaystyle ∫^∞_{−∞}\frac{x}{(x^2+1)^2}dx$$

$$\displaystyle 0.0$$

Exercise $$\PageIndex{38}$$

$$\displaystyle ∫^∞_0e^{−x}dx$$

Add texts here. Do not delete this text first.

Evaluate the improper integrals. Each of these integrals has an infinite discontinuity either at an endpoint or at an interior point of the interval.

Exercise $$\PageIndex{39}$$

$$\displaystyle ∫^9_0\frac{dx}{\sqrt{9−x}}$$

$$\displaystyle 6.0$$

Exercise $$\PageIndex{40}$$

$$\displaystyle ∫^1_{−27}\frac{dx}{x^{2/3}}$$

Add texts here. Do not delete this text first.

Exercise $$\PageIndex{41}$$

$$\displaystyle ∫^3_0\frac{dx}{\sqrt{9−x^2}}$$

$$\displaystyle \frac{π}{2}$$

Exercise $$\PageIndex{42}$$

$$\displaystyle ∫^{24}_6\frac{dt}{t\sqrt{t^2−36}}$$

Add texts here. Do not delete this text first.

Exercise $$\PageIndex{43}$$

$$\displaystyle ∫^4_0xln(4x)dx$$

$$\displaystyle 8ln(16)−4$$

Exercise $$\PageIndex{44}$$

$$\displaystyle ∫^3_0\frac{x}{\sqrt{9−x^2}}dx$$

Add texts here. Do not delete this text first.

Exercise $$\PageIndex{45}$$

Evaluate $$\displaystyle ∫^t_{.5}\frac{dx}{\sqrt{1−x^2}}.$$ (Be careful!) (Express your answer using three decimal places.)

$$\displaystyle 1.047$$

Exercise $$\PageIndex{46}$$

Evaluate $$\displaystyle ∫^4_1\frac{dx}{\sqrt{x^2−1}}.$$ (Express the answer in exact form.)

Add texts here. Do not delete this text first.

Exercise $$\PageIndex{47}$$

Evaluate $$\displaystyle ∫^∞_2\frac{dx}{(x^2−1)^{3/2}}.$$

$$\displaystyle −1+\frac{2}{\sqrt{3}}$$

Exercise $$\PageIndex{48}$$

Find the area of the region in the first quadrant between the curve $$\displaystyle y=e^{−6x}$$ and the x-axis.

Add texts here. Do not delete this text first.

Exercise $$\PageIndex{49}$$

Find the area of the region bounded by the curve $$\displaystyle y=\frac{7}{x^2},$$ the x-axis, and on the left by $$\displaystyle x=1.$$

$$\displaystyle 7.0$$

Exercise $$\PageIndex{50}$$

Find the area under the curve $$\displaystyle y=\frac{1}{(x+1)^{3/2}},$$ bounded on the left by $$\displaystyle x=3.$$

Add texts here. Do not delete this text first.

Exercise $$\PageIndex{51}$$

Find the area under $$\displaystyle y=\frac{5}{1+x^2}$$ in the first quadrant.

$$\displaystyle \frac{5π}{2}$$

Exercise $$\PageIndex{52}$$

Find the volume of the solid generated by revolving about the x-axis the region under the curve $$\displaystyle y=\frac{3}{x}$$ from $$\displaystyle x=1$$ to $$\displaystyle x=∞.$$

Add texts here. Do not delete this text first.

Exercise $$\PageIndex{53}$$

Find the volume of the solid generated by revolving about the y-axis the region under the curve $$\displaystyle y=6e^{−2x}$$ in the first quadrant.

$$\displaystyle 3π$$

Exercise $$\PageIndex{54}$$

Find the volume of the solid generated by revolving about the x-axis the area under the curve $$\displaystyle y=3e^{−x}$$ in the first quadrant.

Add texts here. Do not delete this text first.

The Laplace transform of a continuous function over the interval $$\displaystyle [0,∞)$$ is defined by $$\displaystyle F(s)=∫^∞_0e^{−sx}f(x)dx$$ (see the Student Project). This definition is used to solve some important initial-value problems in differential equations, as discussed later. The domain of F is the set of all real numbers s such that the improper integral converges. Find the Laplace transform F of each of the following functions and give the domain of F.

Exercise $$\PageIndex{55}$$

$$\displaystyle f(x)=1$$

$$\displaystyle \frac{1}{s},s>0$$

Exercise $$\PageIndex{56}$$

$$\displaystyle f(x)=x$$

Add texts here. Do not delete this text first.

Exercise $$\PageIndex{57}$$

$$\displaystyle f(x)=cos(2x)$$

$$\displaystyle \frac{s}{s^2+4},s>0$$

Exercise $$\PageIndex{58}$$

$$\displaystyle f(x)=e^{ax}$$

Add texts here. Do not delete this text first.

Exercise $$\PageIndex{59}$$

Use the formula for arc length to show that the circumference of the circle $$\displaystyle x^2+y^2=1$$ is 2π.

A function is a probability density function if it satisfies the following definition: $$\displaystyle ∫^∞_{−∞}f(t)dt=1$$. The probability that a random variable x lies between a and b is given by $$\displaystyle P(a≤x≤b)=∫^b_af(t)dt.$$

Exercise $$\PageIndex{60}$$

Show that $$\displaystyle f(x)=\begin{cases}0&ifx<0\\7e^{−7x}&ifx≥0\end{cases}$$ is a probability density function.

Add texts here. Do not delete this text first.

Exercise $$\PageIndex{61}$$

Find the probability that x is between 0 and 0.3. (Use the function defined in the preceding problem.) Use four-place decimal accuracy.