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7: Geometry

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    • 7.1: Perimeter and Circumference
      A polygon is a closed geometric figure with straight sides. Common polygons include triangles, squares, rectangles, parallelograms, trapezoids, pentagons, hexagons, octagons… The perimeter of a polygon is the distance around the outside. In general, to find the perimeter of a polygon, you can add up the lengths of all of its sides.
    • 7.2: Area of Polygons and Circles
      We have seen that the perimeter of a polygon is the distance around the outside. Perimeter is a length, which is one-dimensional, and so it is measured in linear units (feet, centimeters, miles, etc.). The area of a polygon is the amount of two-dimensional space inside the polygon, and it is measured in square units: square feet, square centimeters, square miles, etc.
    • 7.3: Composite Figures
      Many objects have odd shapes made up of simpler shapes. A composite figure is a geometric figure which is formed by—or composed of—two or more basic geometric figures. We will look at a handful of fairly simple examples, but this concept can of course be extended to much more complicated figures.
    • 7.4: Surface Area of Common Solids
      In this module, we will look the surface areas of some common solids. (We will look at volume in a later module.) Surface area is what it sounds like: it’s the sum of the areas of all of the outer surfaces of the solid. When you are struggling to wrap a present because your sheet of wrapping paper isn’t quite big enough, you are dealing with surface area.
    • 7.5: Volume of Common Solids
      The surface area of a solid is the sum of the areas of all its faces; therefore, surface area is two-dimensional and measured in square units. The volume is the amount of space inside the solid. Volume is three-dimensional, measured in cubic units. You can imagine the volume as the number of cubes required to completely fill up the solid.
    • 7.6: Pyramids and Cones

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