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6.2: Finding the factors of a Monomial

  • Page ID
    49373
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    Products of Polynomials

    Previously, we studied the multiplication of polynomials. We were given factors and asked to find their product, as shown below.

    Example \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    Given the factors 4 and 8, find the product. \(4 \cdot 8=32\). The product is 32.

    Example \(\PageIndex{2}\)

    Given the factors \(6x^2\) and \(2x−7\), find the product.

    \(6x^2(2x−7)=12x^3−42x^2\)
    The product is \(12x^3−42x^2\).

    Example \(\PageIndex{3}\)

    Given the factors \(x - 2y\) and \(3x + y\), find the product.

    \(\begin{array}
    (x-2y)(3x+y)&=&3x^2+xy-6xy-2y^2\\
    &=&3x^3-5xy-2y^2
    \end{array}\)

    The product is \(3x^2-5xy-2y^2\).

    Example \(\PageIndex{4}\)

    Given the factors \(a+8\) and \(a+8\), find the product.

    \((a+8)^2=a^2+16a+64\)
    The product is \(a^2+16a+64\).

    Factoring

    Now, let’s reverse the situation. We will be given the product, and we will try to find the factors. This process, which is the reverse of multiplication, is called factoring.

    Factoring

    Factoring is the process of determining the factors of a given product.

    Sample Set A

    Example \(\PageIndex{5}\)

    The number 24 is the product, and one factor is 6. What is the other factor?
    We’re looking for a number \(( )\) such that \(6 \cdot ( )=24\). We know from experience that \(( )=4\). As problems become progressively more complex, our experience may not give us the solution directly. We need a method for finding factors. To develop this method we can use the relatively simple problem \(6 \cdot ( )=24\) as a guide.
    To find the number \(( )\), we would divide \(24\) by \(6\).

    \(\dfrac{24}{6} = 4\)

    The other factor is \(4\).

    Example \(\PageIndex{5}\)

    The product is \(18x^3y^4z^2\) and one factor is \(9xy^2z\). What is the other factor?

    We know that since \(9xy^2z\) is a factor of \(18x^3y^4z^2\), there must be some quantity \( )\) such that \(9xy^2z \cdot ( ) = 18x^3y^4z^2\).
    Dividing \(18x^3y^4z^2\) by \(9xy^2z\), we get:

    \(\dfrac{18x^3y^4z^2}{9xy^2z} = 2x^2y^2z\)

    Thus, the other factor is \(2x^2y^2z\).

    Checking will convince us that \(2x^2y^2z\) is indeed the proper factor.

    \(\begin{array}
    (2x^2y^2z)(9xy^2z)&=&18x^{2+1}y^{2+2}z^{1+1}\\
    &=&18x^3y^4z^2
    \end{array}\)

    We should try to find the quotient mentally and avoid actually writing the division problem.

    Example \(\PageIndex{5}\)

    The product of \(-21a^5b^n\) and \(3ab^4\) is a factor. Find the other factor.

    Mentally dividing \(-21a^5b^n\) by \(3ab^4\), we get

    \(\dfrac{-21a^5b^n}{3ab^4} = -7a^{5-1}b^{n-4} = -7a^4b^{n-4}\)

    Thus, the other factor is \(-7a^4b^{n-4}\).

    Practice Set A

    Practice Problem \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    The product is 84 and one factor is 6. What is the other factor?

    Answer

    14

    Practice Problem \(\PageIndex{2}\)

    The product is \(14x^3y^2z^5\) and one factor is \(7xyz\). What is the other factor?

    Answer

    \(2x^2yz^4\)

    Exercises

    In the following problems, the first quantity represents the product and the second quantity represents a factor of that product. Find the other factor.

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    \(30, 6\)

    Answer

    5

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{2}\)

    \(45, 9\)

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{3}\)

    \(10a, 5\)

    Answer

    \(2a\)

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{4}\)

    \(16a, 8\)

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{5}\)

    \(21b, 7b\)

    Answer

    \(3\)

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{6}\)

    \(15a, 5a\)

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{7}\)

    \(20x^3, 4\)

    Answer

    \(5x^3\)

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{8}\)

    \(30y^4, 6\)

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{9}\)

    \(8x^4, 4x\)

    Answer

    \(2x^3\)

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{10}\)

    \(16y^5, 2y\)

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{11}\)

    \(6x^2y, 3x\)

    Answer

    \(2xy\)

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{12}\)

    \(9a^4b^5, 9a^4\)

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{13}\)

    \(15x^2b^4c^7, 5x^2bc^6\)

    Answer

    \(3b^3c\)

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{14}\)

    \(25a^3b^2c, 5ac\)

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{15}\)

    \(18x^2b^5, -2xb^4\)

    Answer

    \(−9xb\)

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{16}\)

    \(22b^8c^6d^3, -11b^8c^4\)

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{17}\)

    \(-60x^5b^3f^9, -15x^2b^2f^2\)

    Answer

    \(4x^3bf^7\)

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{18}\)

    \(39x^4y^5z^{11}, 3xy^3z^{10}\)

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{19}\)

    \(147a^{20}b^6c^{18}d^2, 21a^3bd\)

    Answer

    \(7a^{17}b^5c^{18}d\)

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{20}\)

    \(-121a^6b^8c^{10}, 11b^2c^5\)

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{21}\)

    \(\dfrac{1}{8}x^4y^3, \dfrac{1}{2}xy^3\)

    Answer

    \(\dfrac{1}{4}x^3\)

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{22}\)

    \(7x^2y^3z^2, 7x^2y^3z\)

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{23}\)

    \(5a^4b^7c^3d^2, 5a^4b^7c^3d\)

    Answer

    \(d\)

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{24}\)

    \(14x^4y^3z^7, 14x^4y^3z^7\)

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{25}\)

    \(12a^3b^2c^8, 12a^3b^2c^8\)

    Answer

    \(1\)

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{26}\)

    \(6(a+1)^2(a+5), 3(a+1)^2\)

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{27}\)

    \(8(x+y)^3(x-2y), 2(x-2y)\)

    Answer

    \(4(x+y)^3\)

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{28}\)

    \(14(a-3)^6(a+4)^2, 2(a-3)^2(a+4)\)

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{29}\)

    \(26(x-5y)^{10}(x-3y)^{12}, -2(x-5y)^7(x-3y)^7\)

    Answer

    \(-13(x-5y)^3(x-3y)^5\)

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{30}\)

    \(34(1-a)^4(1+a)^8, -17(1-a)^4(1+a)^2\)

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{31}\)

    \((x+y)(x−y), x−y\)

    Answer

    \((x+y)\)

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{32}\)

    \((a+3)(a−3), a−3\)

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{33}\)

    \(48x^{n+3}y^{2n-1}, 8x^3y^{n+5}\)

    Answer

    \(6x^ny^{n-6}\)

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{34}\)

    \(0.0024x^{4n}y^{3n+5}z^2, 0.03x^{3n}y^5\)

    Exercises for Review

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{35}\)

    Simplify \((x^4y^0z^2)^3\)

    Answer

    \(x^{12}z^6\)

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{36}\)

    Simplify \(−{−[−(−|6|)]}\)

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{37}\)

    Find the product \((2x-4)^2\)

    Answer

    \(4x^2-16x+16\)


    This page titled 6.2: Finding the factors of a Monomial is shared under a CC BY 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Denny Burzynski & Wade Ellis, Jr. (OpenStax CNX) .

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