10.3.1: Regular Markov Chains (Exercises)
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 37936
SECTION 10.3 PROBLEM SET: REGULAR MARKOV CHAINS
 Determine whether the following matrices are regular Markov chains.




 Company I and Company II compete against each other, and the transition matrix for people switching from Company I to Company II is given below.


 Suppose the transition matrix for a tennis player is as follows, where C denotes the crosscourt shots and D denotes downtheline shots.


 Professor Hay never orders eggs two days in a row, but if he orders tofu one day, then there is an equal probability that he will order tofu or eggs the next day.
Find the following:


 In a bikeshare program with 3 bike stations, A, B, and C, people can borrow a bicycle at one station and return it to the same station or either of the other two stations. The transition matrix is:
Find the following:




 Suppose that a country has 3 political parties: the Conservative (C), Liberal (L), and National (N) parties. If a person votes for the candidate from one party in an election, that person may decide to vote for the same party in the next election or may switch to vote for a candidate from another party in the next election. The transition matrix is:
Assume there is an election every year, so the transition time is one year. Find the following.






Question 7 refers to the following:
Markov chains play an important role in online search.
“PageRank is an algorithm used by Google Search to rank websites in their search engine results. PageRank was named after Larry Page, one of the founders of Google. PageRank is a way of measuring the importance of website pages”
Source: https://en.Wikipedia.org/wiki/PageRank under the Creative Commons AttributionShareAlike License;
The theory behind PageRank is that pages that are linked to more often are more important and useful; identifying those that are linked to more often about a topic helps identify the pages that should be presented as most pertinent in a search.
In real world search, there are thousands or millions of pages linking together, resulting in huge transition matrices. Because of the size and other properties of these matrices, the mathematics behind PageRank is more sophisticated than the small example we examine here with only four websites. However our example is adequate to convey the main concept of PageRank and its use in search algorithms.
It should be noted that real world search algorithms, PageRank or similar Markov chain ranking schemes are only one of a variety of methodsused.
Suppose we have 4 webpages that contains links to each other. We call the pages A, B, C, D.
 From page A, 30% of people link to page B, 50% link to page C, and 20% link to page D
 From page B, 50% of popele link to page A and 50% link to page D
 From page C, 10% of people link to page B, 70% link to page C, and 20% link to page D
 From page D, 20% of people link to page A, 40% to page B, 10% to page C, and 30% link to page D
(In this example, when a page links to itself, it means that a person viewing the page stays at that page and does not link to another page.)




