Mathematics is really about proving general statements via arguments, usually called proofs. We start with some given conditions, the premises of our argument, and from these we find a consequence of interest, our conclusion. The problem is, as you no doubt know from arguing with friends, not all arguments are good arguments. A “bad” argument is one in which the conclusion does not follow from the premises, i.e., the conclusion is not a consequence of the premises. Logic is the study of what makes an argument good or bad. Mathematical logic is the subfield of philosophical logic devoted to logical systems that have been sufficiently formalized for mathematical study.
- Book: Friendly Introduction to Mathematical Logic (Leary & Kristiansen)
- At the intersection of mathematics, computer science, and philosophy, mathematical logic examines the power and limitations of formal mathematical thinking. In this expansion of Leary’s user-friendly 1st edition, readers with no previous study in the field are introduced to the basics of model theory, proof theory, and computability theory. The text is designed to be used either in an upper division undergraduate classroom, or for self study.
- Book: Mathematical Reasoning - Writing and Proof (Sundstrom)
- Mathematical Reasoning: Writing and Proof is designed to be a text for the ﬁrst course in the college mathematics curriculum that introduces students to the processes of constructing and writing proofs and focuses on the formal development of mathematics.
Thumbnail: P. Oxy. 29, one of the oldest surviving fragments of Euclid's Elements, a textbook used for millennia to teach proof-writing techniques. The diagram accompanies Book II, Proposition 5. (Public Domain). Text from Oscar Levin's Discrete Mathematics text (CC BY-SA).