# 1.6: Subtract Whole Numbers (Part 2)

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## Translate Word Phrases to Math Notation

As with addition, word phrases can tell us to operate on two numbers using subtraction. To translate from a word phrase to math notation, we look for key words that indicate subtraction. Some of the words that indicate subtraction are listed in Table $$\PageIndex{1}$$.

Table $$\PageIndex{1}$$
Operation Word Phrase Example Expression
Subtraction minus 5 minus 1 5 - 1
difference the difference of 9 and 4 9 - 4
decreased by 7 decreased by 3 7 - 3
less than 5 less than 8 8 - 5
subtracted from 1 subtracted from 6 6 - 1
##### Example $$\PageIndex{11}$$: translate

Translate and then simplify:

1. the difference of $$13$$ and $$8$$
2. subtract $$24$$ from $$43$$

Solution

1. The word difference tells us to subtract the two numbers. The numbers stay in the same order as in the phrase.
 the difference of 13 and 8 Translate. 13 - 8 Simplify. 5
1. The words subtract from tells us to take the second number away from the first. We must be careful to get the order correct.
 subtract 24 from 43 Translate. 43 - 24 Simplify. 19
##### Exercise $$\PageIndex{21}$$

Translate and simplify:

1. the difference of $$14$$ and $$9$$
2. subtract $$21$$ from $$37$$

$$14-9=5$$

$$37-21=16$$

##### Exercise $$\PageIndex{22}$$

Translate and simplify:

1. $$11$$ decreased by $$6$$
2. $$18$$ less than $$67$$

$$11-6=5$$

$$67-18=49$$

## Subtract Whole Numbers in Applications

To solve applications with subtraction, we will use the same plan that we used with addition. First, we need to determine what we are asked to find. Then we write a phrase that gives the information to find it. We translate the phrase into math notation and then simplify to get the answer. Finally, we write a sentence to answer the question, using the appropriate units.

##### Example $$\PageIndex{12}$$: difference

The temperature in Chicago one morning was $$73$$ degrees Fahrenheit. A cold front arrived and by noon the temperature was $$27$$ degrees Fahrenheit. What was the difference between the temperature in the morning and the temperature at noon?

Solution

We are asked to find the difference between the morning temperature and the noon temperature.

 Write a phrase. the difference of 73 and 27 Translate to math notation. Difference tells us to subtract. 73 - 27 Then we do the subtraction. Write a sentence to answer the question. The difference in temperatures was 46 degrees Fahrenheit.
##### Exercise $$\PageIndex{23}$$

The high temperature on June $$1^{st}$$ in Boston was $$77$$ degrees Fahrenheit, and the low temperature was $$58$$ degrees Fahrenheit. What was the difference between the high and low temperatures?

The difference is $$19$$ degrees Fahrenheit.

##### Exercise $$\PageIndex{24}$$

The weather forecast for June $$2^{nd}$$ in St Louis predicts a high temperature of $$90$$ degrees Fahrenheit and a low of $$73$$ degrees Fahrenheit. What is the difference between the predicted high and low temperatures?

The difference is $$17$$ degrees Fahrenheit.

##### Example $$\PageIndex{13}$$: difference

A washing machine is on sale for $$399$$. Its regular price is $$588$$. What is the difference between the regular price and the sale price?

Solution

We are asked to find the difference between the regular price and the sale price.

## Everyday Math

1. Road trip Noah was driving from Philadelphia to Cincinnati, a distance of 502 miles. He drove 115 miles, stopped for gas, and then drove another 230 miles before lunch. How many more miles did he have to travel?
2. Test Scores Sara needs 350 points to pass her course. She scored 75, 50, 70, and 80 on her first four tests. How many more points does Sara need to pass the course?

## Writing Exercises

1. Explain how subtraction and addition are related.
2. How does knowing addition facts help you to subtract numbers?

## Self Check

(a) After completing the exercises, use this checklist to evaluate your mastery of the objectives of this section (b) What does this checklist tell you about your mastery of this section? What steps will you take to improve?

## Contributors and Attributions

• Lynn Marecek (Santa Ana College) and MaryAnne Anthony-Smith (formerly of Santa Ana College). This content produced by OpenStax and is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 license.
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