# 1: Algebra Essentials

- Page ID
- 106312

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- 1.1: Real Numbers - Algebra Essentials
- In this section, we will explore sets of numbers, calculations with different kinds of numbers, and the use of numbers in expressions.

- 1.2: Exponents and Scientific Notation
- Mathematicians, scientists, and economists commonly encounter very large and very small numbers. But it may not be obvious how common such figures are in everyday life.

- 1.3: Radicals and Rational Expressions
- The principal square root of a is written as √a. The symbol is called a radical, the term under the symbol is called the radicand, and the entire expression is called a radical expression.

- 1.4: Polynomials
- In this section, we will examine polynomials, which are sums of or differences of terms, each consisting of a variable raised to a nonnegative integer power.

- 1.5: Factoring Polynomials
- The greatest common factor, or GCF, can be factored out of a polynomial. Checking for a GCF should be the first step in any factoring problem. Trinomials with leading coefficient 1 can be factored by finding numbers that have a product of the third term and a sum of the second term. Trinomials can be factored using a process called factoring by grouping. Perfect square trinomials and the difference of squares are special products and can be factored using equations.

- 1.6: Rational Expressions
- The quotient of two polynomial expressions is called a rational expression. We can apply the properties of fractions to rational expressions, such as simplifying the expressions by canceling common factors from the numerator and the denominator. To do this, we first need to factor both the numerator and denominator.

- 1.7: The Rectangular Coordinate Systems and Graphs
- Descartes introduced the components that comprise the Cartesian coordinate system, a grid system having perpendicular axes. Descartes named the horizontal axis the \(x\)-axis and the vertical axis the \(y\)-axis. This system, also called the rectangular coordinate system, is based on a two-dimensional plane consisting of the \(x\)-axis and the \(y\)-axis. Perpendicular to each other, the axes divide the plane into four sections. Each section is called a quadrant.

- 1.8: Linear Equations in One Variable
- A linear equation is an equation of a straight line, written in one variable. The only power of the variable is 1. Linear equations in one variable may take the form ax+b=0ax+b=0 and are solved using basic algebraic operations.

- 1.9: Quadratic Equations
- Many quadratic equations can be solved by factoring when the equation has a leading coefficient of 1 or if the equation is a difference of squares. The zero-factor property is then used to find solutions. Many quadratic equations with a leading coefficient other than 1 can be solved by factoring using the grouping method. Another method for solving quadratics is the square root property. The variable is squared. We isolate the squared term and take the square root of both sides of the equation.

- 1.10: Other Types of Equations
- Rational exponents can be rewritten several ways depending on what is most convenient for the problem. To solve, both sides of the equation are raised to a power that will render the exponent on the variable equal to 1. Factoring extends to higher-order polynomials when it involves factoring out the GCF or factoring by grouping. We can solve radical equations by isolating the radical and raising both sides of the equation to a power that matches the index.