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2 E: Exercises

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Exercise $$\PageIndex{1}$$:

Determine whether or not each of the following binary relations $$R$$ on the given set $$A$$ are reflexive, symmetric,
antisymmetric, or transitive. If a relation has a certain property, prove this is so; otherwise, provide
counterexample to show that it does not.

1.  Let $$S=\{0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9 \}.$$ Define a relation $$R$$ on $$A= S \times S$$ by  $$(a,b)\, R\, (c,d)$$ if and only if $$10 a +b \leq 10 c+ d.$$

2.  Let $$A= \mathbb{Z} \backslash \{0\}.$$ Define a relation $$R$$ on $$A,$$  by  $$a \,R\, b$$  if and only if $$ab>0.$$

3. Define  a relation $$R$$ on $$A={\mathbb Z}$$ by $$a \,R\, b$$ if and only if  $$4 \mid (3a+b).$$
4.  Define  a relation $$R$$ on $$A={\mathbb Z}$$ by $$a \, R \, b$$ if and only if  $$3 \mid (a^2-b^2).$$

Exercise $$\PageIndex{2}$$:

Let $$a, b,c, d \in \bf Z_+.$$

1.   If $$a|b$$ and $$a|c$$ , is it necessarily true that $$a|(b + c)?$$
2.   If $$a|(b + c)$$, is it necessarily true that $$a|b$$ and $$a|c$$?
3.  If $$a|bc$$,  is it necessarily true that $$a|b$$ and $$a|c$$?
4.   If $$(a+b)|c$$,  is it necessarily true that $$a|c$$ and $$b|c$$?
5. If $$a|c$$ and $$b|c$$ , is it necessarily true that $$(a+b)|c?$$
6.   If $$a^3|b^4$$, is it necessarily true that $$a|b.$$
7. If $$a|b$$ , is it necessarily true that $$a^3 \mid b^5?$$
8.   If $$c|a$$ and $$d|b$$, is it necessarily true that $$cd|ab$$.

Exercise $$\PageIndex{3}$$:

1. Find  all possible values for the missing digit if $$12345X51234$$ is divisible by $$3.$$)
2.  Using divisibility tests, check if the number $$355581$$ is divisible by $$7$$
3.   Using divisibility tests, check if the number $$824112284$$ is divisible by $$5, 4,$$ and $$8.$$

Exercise $$\PageIndex{4}$$:

Let $$a$$ and $$b$$ be positive integers such that $$7|(a+2b-2)$$ and $$7|(b-9).$$ Prove that $$7|(a+b).$$

Exercise $$\PageIndex{5}$$:

1. In a $$113$$-digit multiple of $$13$$, the first $$56$$ digits are all $$5$$s and the last $$56$$ digits are all $$8$$s. What is the middle digit?
2. In a $$113$$-digit multiple of $$7$$, the first $$56$$ digits are all $$8$$s and the last $$56$$ digits are all $$1$$s. What is the middle digit?

Exercise $$\PageIndex{6}$$:

Prove the statements that are true and give counter examples to disprove those that are false.
Let $$a,b$$ and $$c$$ be integers.

1. If $$a|b$$ then $$b|a') 2. If \(a|bc$$ then $$a|b$$ and $$a|c.$$
3.  If $$a|b$$ and $$a|c$$ then $$a|bc$$..
4. If $$a|b$$ and $$a|c$$ then $$a|b+c$$ and $$a|b-c$$
5.  If $$a|b+c$$ and $$a|b-c$$ then $$a|b$$ and $$a|c$$.
6.  If $$a|b$$ and $$a|c$$ then $$a|b+c$$ and $$a|2b+c$$.
7. If $$a|b+c$$ and $$a|2b+c$$ then $$a|b$$ and $$a|c$$