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Understanding Elementary Mathematics (Harland)

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    Understanding Elementary Mathematics, a series of hands-on Workbook Modules, was written especially for prospective elementary school teachers in a way that they would actively learn the structures, concepts and foundations of elementary mathematics.

    Thumbnail: The abacus is a calculating tool that has been in use since ancient times and is still in use today. The abacus consists of a number of rows of movable beads or other objects, which represent digits. One of two numbers is set up, and the beads are manipulated to implement an operation involving a second number (e.g., addition), or rarely a square or cubic root. (Unsplash Lisense; Crissy Jarvis via Unspash)​​​

    This page titled Understanding Elementary Mathematics (Harland) is shared under a CC BY-NC 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Julie Harland via source content that was edited to the style and standards of the LibreTexts platform; a detailed edit history is available upon request.