These notes serve as course notes for an undergraduate course in number theory. Most if not all universities worldwide offer introductory courses in number theory for math majors and in many cases as an elective course. The notes contain a useful introduction to important topics that need to be addressed in a course in number theory. Proofs of basic theorems are presented in an interesting and comprehensive way that can be read and understood even by non-majors with the exception in the last three chapters where a background in analysis, measure theory and abstract algebra is required. The exercises are carefully chosen to broaden the understanding of the concepts. Moreover, these notes shed light on analytic number theory, a subject that is rarely seen or approached by undergraduate students. One of the unique characteristics of these notes is the careful choice of topics and its importance in the theory of numbers. The freedom is given in the last two chapters because of the advanced nature of the topics that are presented.
Thumbnail: Golden spiral. Assuming a square has the side length of 1, the next smaller square is 1/φ wide. Then a width of 1/φ², 1/φ³ and so on. (Public Domain; Jahobr).