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6: Functions

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• 6.1: Introduction to Functions
One of the most important concepts in modern mathematics is that of a function. We often consider a function as some sort of input-output rule that assigns exactly one output to each input. So in this context, a function can be thought of as a procedure for associating with each element of some set, called the domain of the function, exactly one element of another set, called the codomain of the function. This procedure can be considered an input-output-rule.
• 6.2: More about Functions
We have also seen various ways to represent functions. We have also seen that sometimes it is more convenient to give a verbal description of the rule for a function. In cases where the domain and codomain are small, finite sets, we used an arrow diagram to convey information about how inputs and outputs are associated without explicitly stating a rule. In this section, we will study some types of functions, some of which we may not have encountered in previous mathematics courses.
• 6.3: Injections, Surjections, and Bijections
Functions are frequently used in mathematics to define and describe certain relationships between sets and other mathematical objects. In addition, functions can be used to impose certain mathematical structures on sets. In this section, we will study special types of functions that are used to describe these relationships that are called injections and surjections.
• 6.4: Composition of Functions
There are several ways to combine two existing functions to create a new function. For example, in calculus, we learned how to form the product and quotient of two functions and then how to use the product rule to determine the derivative of a product of two functions and the quotient rule to determine the derivative of the quotient of two functions.
• 6.5: Inverse Functions
• 6.6: Functions Acting on Sets
• 6.S: Functions (Summary)